World-class training for the modern energy industry

The Fundamentals of Business for the Energy Transition: A European Perspective (E908)

Tutor(s)

Ben Klooss: Camberwell Energy

Overview

The aim of this course is to provide an overview of key business aspects in relation to the energy transition. Two case studies will be used to frame the course learnings.

Duration and Logistics

Classroom version: A half-day course comprising a mix of lectures, case studies and exercises. The manual will be provided in digital format and participants will be required to bring a laptop or tablet computer to follow the lectures and exercises.

Virtual version: One 3-hour interactive online session (a morning in North America and an afternoon in Europe). A digital manual and exercise materials will be distributed to participants before the course.

Level and Audience

Awareness. The course is aimed at non-technical staff and those who do not have a business background but want a basic introduction to the topic. The subject matter will be covered from very basic principles and will be of interest to staff from a range of departments, including legal, graphics, administration and technical support, as well as the geoscience staff.

Objectives

You will learn to:

  • Understand the current global energy demand and how this will look in the future.
  • Recall the economic aspects of renewables.
  • Appreciate the mix and projected levels of current energy supply.
  • Describe the decarbonization targets for the EU and the overall scale of the energy transition that is required.

Course Content

This short course covers the key aspects of business for the energy transition and will give participants a fundamental understanding of the key aspects. Topics to be covered include:

  • Global energy demand and current and future projections by sector to 2050, with a focus on Europe – demand for electricity vs primary energy
  • Economic aspects of renewables (e.g. profitability, size of the application vs economics)
  • Global and European energy supply – current and projected levels of primary energy supply, including hydrocarbons, nuclear and renewables (e.g. geothermal, wind, hydrogen, solar and bioenergy). European estimates of domestically produced vs imported total primary energy
  • European climate policy objectives. Decarbonization targets for the EU and separately for the UK. The scale of the low-carbon energy transition that is required in Europe
  • Two case studies to illustrate opportunities, policy drivers and commercial factors: CCS in the Netherlands; and Hydrogen in the Netherlands. Each case study will discuss:
    • Specific market context to outline the scale of the opportunity
    • Policies, regulations and support instruments (i.e. carbon price, contract for difference, subsidies) directly affecting the particular business opportunity
    • Potential business models and commercial risks. This will include high-level descriptions of the factors determining business viability and profitability, as well as limiting factors

Sand-rich and Confined Turbidite Systems: Annot, France (G048)

Tutor(s)

Mark Bentley: TRACS International, Ltd, and Langdale Geoscience

Ed Stephens: TRACS International, Ltd

Overview

Experience the classic, well-exposed Grès d’Annot turbidite outcrop area in the French Alps, an excellent analogue for deepwater exploration and development targets in structurally active slope and basin settings. This course will provide insights into field development challenges in relatively confined, high-net, submarine fan systems by using the world-class exposures along with static/dynamic models of the outcrops to support discussions. Seismic forward-models of 3-D and 4-D responses to waterfloods in these systems add to the conversation. The setting allows reservoirs to be observed at a range of scales from seismic- and field-scale, to the scale of a core plug, and is intended for a cross-discipline, geoscience and petroleum engineering audience.

Objectives

You will learn to:

  1. Assess discrete, structurally controlled sediment transport pathways into bathymetrically complex deepwater basins.
  2. Assess the role of relative structural and flow confinement on turbidite reservoir architecture.
  3. Characterize internal reservoir architecture in different parts of the system and assess the impact of heterogeneities on fluid flow.
  4. Formulate reservoir and simulation modeling requirements, in order to forecast production performance from reservoirs of these types.
  5. Determine the level of detail required for reservoir characterization under a range of fluid fills and production mechanisms.
  6. Understand how much of the observed heterogeneity would be detectable on seismic, and predict how fluid-sensitive heterogeneities would be visible on 4-D seismic for a field on production.

Exertion Level

This class requires a DIFFICULT exertion level. The Grès d’Annot is quite comfortable in the early summer, with temperatures of 10–25°C (50–80°F) and occasional rain showers. Some field locations require path-based hillwalking involving ascents up to 600m (2000 feet). The longest excursion involves a full-day hike and will be conducted at a leisurely pace.

Level and Audience

Advanced. The course is designed for integrated teams (geologists, geophysicists and reservoir engineers) evaluating development opportunities for fields in deepwater confined basins. The ideal group would be an asset team, who would be encouraged to bring their own field issues (and data where possible) to discuss live on the analogue

Duration and Logistics

A 5-day field course in the French Alps, comprising field activities and exercises on-site, unless weather doesn’t allow. The manual will be provided in paper format, with a digital copy available as a take-away.

Course Content

The Grès d’Annot displays a range of reservoir architectures from high concentration gravity flows. These are often interpreted as ‘tanks’ of sand in field development scenarios, where much good effort is placed on extracting large-scale sand architectures from seismic. The internal content of sands within these high-net architectures is often assumed to be relatively homogeneous, but this is often not the case. On this course, key heterogeneities that impact fluid flow will be observed, and their significance quantified using on-scale reservoir and simulation models of the outcrops. The extent to which these features can be seen on seismic is evaluated by forward-modeling the outcrops under initial reservoir conditions (3-D seismic forward-models) and after production (4-D seismic forward-models).

Topics covered include:

  • Reservoir characterization in high-net, deep marine systems
  • Petrophysical expression of reservoir character
  • Static modeling techniques for these systems appropriate to a range of fluid fills
  • Fluid response to these heterogeneities and dynamic (simulation) modeling requirements
  • Seismic expression of field-scale architectures
  • Development planning and well placement in these systems

Exercises on-site will include: observation of key heterogeneities; conceptual sketching of a range of architectures; reservoir and simulation model design for those architectures; and interactive discussions on the importance of the observed heterogeneities in development planning (including well placement and production forecasting).

Itinerary

Day 0

Arrive in Nice and course introduction

Day 1

Field visits: St Antonin and St Benoit – regional scale

  • Regional setting – proximal/distal mini-basins and regional fill-and-spill
  • Large-scale heterogeneity

Day 2

Field visits: Coulomp Valley – gross reservoir architecture

  • Overview of sand distribution – boundaries and contacts
  • Seismic expression – 3-D seismic forward modeling
  • Large scale production performance

Day 3

Field visits: Annot Town – internal reservoir architecture

  • Reservoir heterogeneities
  • Log vs core expression – petrophysical response
  • Fluid sensitivity to heterogeneities
  • Static/dynamic modeling and forecasting
  • Monitoring production – 4-D seismic forward modeling

Day 4

Field visits: Col de la Cayolle – contrasting systems

  • Lower net components of sand-rich systems
  • Contrasting reservoir heterogeneities
  • Effective flow properties and sweep efficiency under production
  • How models go bad

Day 5

Field visits: Chalufy – reservoir margins

  • Observing on-scale reservoir pinch-outs
  • Seismic resolution of field margins
  • Drilling the edge: well planning influenced by seismic character
  • Observing at outcrop architectures we normally miss

Day 6

Depart Nice

CCS Reservoir Geology at Outcrop: Rotliegend and Bunter/Sherwood Sandstones, Cumbria and NW Cheshire (E578)

Tutor(s)

Richard Worden: Professor in the Department of Earth Ocean and Ecological Sciences, University of Liverpool, UK

Overview

This course is intended to give subsurface teams the opportunity to see some of the rocks at outcrop that they are planning to use as CO2 storage sites. Visiting these outcrops will allow subsurface teams, who generally use logs and limited core to build models, the opportunity to see the larger and smaller scale architecture of the rocks they are working on. We will also discuss post-depositional changes to their sandstones, including petrophysical and geomechanical property evolution (pre- and post-CO2 injection), and some of the risks associated with developing saline aquifers and depleted gas fields as CO2 storage sites in these sandstones.

Duration and Logistics

A 5-day field course comprising a mix of field activities in NW England (Cumbria, Cheshire and Merseyside) with classroom lecture sessions and discussions.

Exertion Level

This class requires a MODERATE exertion level. Field locations are mainly relatively easy walks from road access points, although there may be some scrambling over coastal boulders and walking down and up tide-dependent coastal access paths.

Level and Audience

Intermediate. This course is intended for geoscience and engineering professionals working in CCS projects, especially those with an active interest in the Permian Rotliegend and Triassic Bunter/Sherwood Sandstones.

Objectives

You will learn to:

  1. Characterize the main depositional features that influence Permian Sandstone (Rotliegend) reservoir properties and CCS reservoir development and likely performance.
  2. Assess the main diagenetic features that influence Permian Sandstone (Rotliegend) reservoir properties and CCS reservoir development and likely performance.
  3. Appraise the main depositional features that influence Triassic Sandstone (Bunter/Sherwood) reservoir properties and CCS reservoir development and likely performance.
  4. Examine the main diagenetic features that influence Triassic Sandstone (Bunter/Sherwood) reservoir properties and CCS reservoir development and likely performance.
  5. Evaluate the role of depositional and diagenetic processes in influencing top-seal caprock performance in CCS reservoirs.

Course Content

The course will incorporate field visits to East and West Cumbria (Vale of Eden and St Bees Head) and NW Cheshire/Merseyside (Hilbre, Thursaston, Helsby, Beeston, Daresbury). There will also be formal classroom presentations about what the class has seen/will see and its relevance to Permian (Rotliegend) and Triassic (Sherwood and Bunter) CCS reservoir, with consideration and possible visits to overlying mudstone caprocks (Permian: St Bees Shale/Zechstein; Triassic: Mercia Mudsone/Haisborough Gp).

Itinerary (tbc based on availability of sites)

Day 1

  • Arrive at Armathwaite (Vale of Eden hotel if available)
  • Evening presentations on the outcrop (field) and subsurface geology of the Lower Permian sandstones (Rotliegend equivalent)

Day 2
Field visits: Vale of Eden

  • Travel to Ravenglass (Pennington hotel if available)
  • Evening presentations on the outcrop (field) and subsurface geology of the Upper Permian and the Lower part of the Sherwood Sandstones (Bunter equivalent)

Day 3
Field visits: Ravenglass and north of St Bees Head (highly tide dependent access to coastal outcrops)

  • Travel to North Cheshire (North Cheshire Hotel if available)

Day 4
Field visits: Upper Sherwood Sandstone, possibly at Hilbre, West Kirby or similar (Ormskirk Fm, equivalent of Upper Bunter)

  • Travel to Liverpool/Wirral and North Cheshire
  • Possible evening presentation on geology of depleted gas fields and saline aquifers in Triassic sandstones

Day 5
Field visits: Upper Sherwood Sandstone and possibly lowermost Mercia Mudstone Group in NW England, outcrops at Helsby, Beeston, Daresbury or even Altrincham

  • Check out of Chester hotel
  • Course concludes

 

Geothermal Sedimentary Systems: Exploration, Development and Production Principles (E574)

Tutor(s)

Mark Ireland: Senior Lecturer in Energy Geoscience, Newcastle University

Overview

This course covers all aspects of various sedimentary geothermal systems, from exploration through to production. It is intended as an introduction to the entire lifecycle of sedimentary geothermal resources, covering aspects of geoscience and engineering.

Duration and Logistics

Four 3.5-hour interactive online sessions presented over 4 days. A digital manual and exercise materials will be distributed to participants before the course.

Level and Audience

Fundamental. The course is intended for all career stage industry professionals and early career researchers with a geoscience or geo-engineering background, including those with a familiarity in oil and gas production.

Objectives

You will learn to:

  1. Understand the basic principles of heat generation within the upper crust.
  2. Describe the key characteristics of sedimentary geothermal resources and reservoirs.
  3. Examine the geothermal play concept.
  4. Establish exploration methods using oil and gas data to assess geothermal resources in sedimentary basins.
  5. Illustrate the development and production options for these geothermal resources.
  6. Appreciate the principle geological hazards, in relation to geothermal projects, including induced seismicity.
  7. Appreciate the range of environmental impacts associated with geothermal developments.
  8. Appreciate project risks and uncertainties in developing geothermal resources.

Course Content

This course will focus on the lifecycle of sedimentary geothermal resources and the associated project workflows.

Session 1: Principles of sedimentary geothermal resources

  • Sedimentary basins: formation and types
  • Heat flow in the upper crust
  • Geothermal play system types

Session 2: Geothermal resource characterization

  • Geological characterization of resources
  • Geothermal sedimentary reservoirs characterization
  • Demand side importance

Session 3: Exploration to production

  • Geothermal exploration and production
  • Geohazards and environmental considerations
  • Case studies

Session 4: Impacts, risks and uncertainties

  • Uncertainties and challenges in developing geothermal resources
  • Integration of geothermal resources into energy systems planning

Integration of Rocks and Petrophysical Logs (G059)

Tutor(s)

Greg Samways: Director at GeoLumina

Overview

This course will focus on a simple petrophysical workflow entailing the determination of rock properties from conventional logs and core analysis data. Lithology, porosity, permeability and saturations will be determined using a variety of different analytical and simple modelling methods. Emphasis will be placed on understanding the importance of calibration, integration, and validation of the results of each method, based on a fundamental understanding of the geological controls on petrophysical properties.

Objectives

You will learn to:

  1. Understand the fundamental geological controls on reservoir properties.
  2. Describe how these properties are measured in the laboratory using conventional and special core analysis methods.
  3. Characterize the ways in which lithology and porosity are determined from well logs and calibrated with core analysis, and how permeability may be estimated in the subsurface away from core control.
  4. Evaluate how the Archie equation is used to determine saturation in cores and from well logs, and the uncertainties and limitations with this method
  5. Investigate how saturation-height models can be created from special core analysis data, thereby avoiding some of the limitations of the Archie method.
  6. Interpret typical conventional log and core analysis data using Excel spreadsheets.
  7. Experiment with the sensitivities of input parameters for various determinations, such as V-Shale, porosity and saturation.

Level and Audience

Fundamental. This course is intended for non-petrophysicists who require a grounding in the petrophysical determination of lithology, porosity and saturation from conventional and special core analysis, and conventional open-hole logs.

Duration and Logistics

Classroom version: 3-days with a mix of lectures and exercises. The manual will be provided in digital format and participants will be required to bring a laptop or tablet computer to follow the lectures and exercises.

Virtual version: Five, 3.5-hour interactive online sessions presented over 5 days (mornings in North America and afternoons in Europe). The course will focus on problem-solving using real-world data and use a series of Excel workbooks. A digital manual and exercise materials will be distributed to participants before the course.

Course Content

It is important to become familiar with all the different analytical approaches available and consider all the possibilities, enabling the interpreter to make a sound judgment as to the accuracy and validity of the analytical results they achieve. The sections below provide a more detailed outline of the program.

Session1: Fundamentals of Rock Properties

Presentation – Fundamentals of Rock Properties: Fluid-Rock Interactions and Their Geological Controls. What are the fundamental rock properties that control reservoir quality? If we are going to validate the accuracy of our reservoir parameter measurements, which must understand the fundamentals of the properties we are measuring. Understanding these fundamentals will enable us to constrain predictions away from well control. We must keep our models of the pore systems grounded in the geology.

Activity – Group Discussion: The nature of pore systems in the trainee’s reservoirs. Collaborative mind-mapping exercise using Mural.

Session 2: Measurement of Rock Properties

Presentation – Measurement of Rock Properties: Fundamentals, Limitations and Uncertainties in Conventional and Special Core Analysis. How are the key petrophysical rock properties measured in core? How reliable and comparable are the data? How do we validate the measurements?

Activity – Group Discussion: Consider the nature and reliability of core analysis in the trainee’s reservoirs. How are your cores collected, managed, processed and analyzed? What are the uncertainties and limitations of your data? Are there discrepancies between methods? Collaborative mind-mapping exercise using Mural.

Session 3: Lithology, Porosity and Permeability

Presentation – Determination of Lithology, Porosity and Permeability from Conventional Open-hole Logs. Conventional Open Hole Logging Tools: Function, Limitations and Uncertainties. Which tools do we use to determine lithology and porosity? How do we determine permeability? What are the tools really measuring and how can we validate the results by calibrating to core measurements?

How can advanced logs such as Borehole Images, Electron Capture Spectroscopy and NMR help us to refine our interpretations?

Exercise – Lithology, Porosity and Permeability Determination Case Study in an Excel Workbook.

Session 4: Archie Water Saturation

The Archie Equation: Application and Limitations in Core and Log Analysis. Where do all the inputs for the Archie equation come from? Do we believe them? What can we do when different analytical methods give different values for key input parameters? Should we rely on the core measurements or the log measurements? What can we do when Archie fails in shaly lithologies? What alternatives are offered by advanced logging techniques such as NMR and Dielectric Logs?

Exercise – Saturation Determination Case Study in an Excel Workbook using the Archie equation and Pickett Plots.

Session 5: Saturation-Height Analysis and Reservoir Summation

Presentation – Determination of Saturation vs. Height in the Reservoir. Creating a saturation model based on special core analysis. Many petrophysicists prefer to determine saturation using a saturation-height model based on special core analysis which is independent of fluid properties.

Reservoir Summation: What is the difference between net rock, net sand and net pay?

Exercise – Saturation-Height Case Study in an Excel Workbook. Determination of Net, Rock, Net Sand and Net Pay.

Building a Reservoir Model, Pembrokeshire, UK (G055)

Tutor(s)

Mark Bentley: TRACS International and Langdale Geoscience.

Overview

This course offers a software-independent view on the process of reservoir model design and simulation model-building, addresses the underlying reasons why some models disappoint and offers solutions that support the building of more efficient, fit-for-purpose models. The thread through the week is a model design for the notional ‘Pembroke Field’ – a synthetic field constructed from reservoir analogue outcrops in South Pembrokeshire.  The Pembroke Field contains three contrasting reservoir types: continental clastics, shallow marine deltaics and naturally fractured carbonates, in both structurally deformed and undeformed settings. Data from producing oil and gas fields has been scaled to the synthetic models to create a realistic hydrocarbon field accumulation, ready for development.

Objectives

You will learn to:

  1. Create a fluid-sensitive conceptual model for a heterogeneous reservoir, built from a selection of elements and placed in a realistic architectural framework: the “sketch”.
  2. Guide the use of geostatistical tools intuitively, balancing deterministic and probabilistic components with awareness of the limits of the tools.
  3. Select appropriate methods for modeling of matrix properties, including the handling of net (cut-off’s vs total property modeling).
  4. Evaluate options for multi-scale modelling and the possible need for multi-scale approaches based on hierarchical understanding of Representative Elementary Volumes (REV).
  5. Understand issues surrounding permeability modeling and why this differs from the handling of other properties.
  6. Learn a rule of thumb (“Flora’s rule”) to help assess what level of static model detail matters to flow modeling and forecasting.
  7. Review how to use well test analysis to constrain models.
  8. Review options for model-based uncertainty handling (base case led, multi-deterministic scenarios, multi-stochastic ensembles), learn how to post-process the results and how to select an appropriate workflow which minimizes impact of behavioral bias.

Exertion Level

This class requires an EASY exertion level. Field stops require short walks along coastal paths, beaches and wave cut platforms. The longest walk is <5km (3 miles). Field stops are all at approximately sea level and some are tide dependent. Transport will be by coach.This class requires an EASY exertion level. Field stops require short walks along coastal paths, beaches and wave cut platforms. The longest walk is <5km (3 miles). Field stops are all at approximately sea level and some are tide dependent. Transport will be by coach.

Level and Audience

Intermediate. The course is aimed at geoscientists with knowledge of reservoir modeling software, petrophysicists who provide input to static reservoir models and reservoir engineers involved in simulation work who deal with the static-dynamic interface on a regular basis. The course is also of benefit to team leaders who wish to have a deeper understanding of the principles behind modeling and how to QC models made by others.

Duration and Logistics

5 days; a mix of field work (70%), and classroom exercises (30%).

Course Content

The central theme of the course is Reservoir Model Design, on the premise that it is design rather than software knowledge that typically distinguishes “good models” from “bad models”. Considerable time is dedicated to reservoir model and simulation exercises in many companies but the results often disappoint: the time taken to build models is often too long, the models too detailed and cumbersome and the final model is ultimately not fit-for-purpose. This course examines the reasons why and offers remedies to fix these problems.

Modelling and simulation software is not run live on the event – the emphasis is on good design. However, models and simulations of the Pembroke Field have been built at a number of scales and will be shown to quantify the impact of the observed field heterogeneities on fluid flow.

The course is organized around the following five themes, issues within which are often the cause of poor model outcome:

Model purpose
What is the question we are specifically trying to address? What do we really mean when we say “fit for purpose”?

Elements and architecture
How much detail should be incorporated into the models? From the rich spectrum of potential lithofacies, electrofacies, biostratigraphic and analogue data inputs, how do we select the “right” number of components (elements) to take forward into the modeling process? Once selected, how do these elements combine into a realistic description of length scales and reservoir architecture? How to capture this in an interpretative sketch that can be used as a cross-discipline communication tool.

Probability and determinism
Is the balance of probabilistic and deterministic components appropriate given the model purpose? Should heterogeneities be handled implicitly or explicitly in the static and dynamic models and if implicitly, then how should we average their properties? What are our expectations of geostatistics and how do we control the algorithms intuitively to replicate a sketched reservoir concept? This applies both to modeling of the matrix and also fractures, and we explore how we can use well test data to place deterministic constraints on our models.

Multi-scale modeling
What scale should we be modeling and simulating at, given the fluid type and model purpose? Can everything be modeled at one scale, or are static/dynamic multi-scale models required? We address the full spectrum of heterogeneity using the concept of Representative Elementary Volumes and conclude that traditional static-dynamic upscaling is only part of the story and not always the main part. Illustrations of fine-scale “Truth” models will be used to illustrate where we sometimes go wrong when we over-simplify a design.

Model-based uncertainty-handling
How to really go wrong. What are the tools we can use to identify natural bias (heuristics) in the modeling process and select workflows that capture useful ranges in a practical way, minimizing bias in the process. We summarize the current range of stochastically and deterministically led options, including the current trend towards “ensemble” modeling and the use of machine learning and AI. We discuss which techniques are appropriate to use and when, and how to post-process the results and communicate them usefully to colleagues.

Itinerary

Day 0
Arrival. Evening course introduction and safety briefing
Overnight Saundersfoot

Day 1
Model purpose, elements and architecture
Fieldwork: Amroth, incised valley fill, delta front and delta plain depositional systems
Overnight Saundersfoot

Day 2
Rock modelling, probability and determinism, practical geostatistics
Fieldwork: Swanlake Bay and Manorbier, Lower Old Red Sandstone (Early Devonian) fluvial facies – sandbody types and palaoesols
Overnight Saundersfoot

Day 3
Property modelling, handling permeability and fractures
Fieldwork: Saundersfoot – folding
Overnight Saundersfoot

Day 4
Dealing with scale: upscaling, multi-scale modelling and the REV
Fieldwork: Stackpole – faulting and fractured carbonates
Overnight Saundersfoot

Day 5
Model-based uncertainty handling; completing the Pembroke model design and debriefing with reservoir and simulation models.
Fieldwork: Tenby – carbonates and structural features
Overnight Saundersfoot

Day 6
Departure

Essential Data Science for Subsurface Geoscientists and Engineers (G065)

Tutor(s)

David Psaila: Analytic Signal Limited

Overview

Interest in data science and machine learning is rapidly expanding, offering the promise of increased efficiency in E&P, and holding the potential to analyse and extract value from vast amounts of under-utilised legacy data. Combined with petroleum geoscience and engineering domain knowledge, the key elements underlying the successful application of the technology are: data, code, and algorithms. This course builds on public datasets, code examples written in Python, statistical graphics, and algorithms from popular data science packages to provide a practical introduction to the subject and its application in the E&P domain.

Duration and Logistics

Classroom version: 5 days consisting of lectures and computer-based exercises and practicals.

Virtual version: Ten, 3-hour online sessions presented over 5 days. The course is at an introductory level and all subject matter will be taught from scratch. No prior experience of statistics, Python coding or machine learning is required, although some basic college level knowledge of maths and statistics is useful. Hands-on computer workshops form a significant part of this course, and participants must come equipped with a laptop computer running Windows (8, 10, 11) or MacOS (10.10 or above) with sufficient free storage (4 Gb). Detailed installation instructions are provided in advance so that participants can set up their computer with the data science toolkit and course materials before the course starts.

Level and Audience

Fundamental. This is an introductory course for reservoir geologists, reservoir geophysicists, reservoir engineers, data management, and technical staff who want to learn the key concepts of data science.

Objectives

You will learn to:

  1. Analyse project data using the data science toolkit; notebooks, visualization, and communication.
  2. Perform data import and manipulation, data visualization, exploratory data analysis, and building predictive models from data.
  3. Have a working knowledge of coding in Python.
  4. Coordinate reference systems including geographic and projected coordinate systems.
  5. Use the fundamentals of machine learning including background concepts, the different types of machine learning, and the basic workflow to build and evaluate models from data.

Course Content

The course comprises a mix of lectures and hands-on computer workshops. You’ll gain a working knowledge of coding in Python. You’ll learn the tradecraft of data import and manipulation, data visualization, exploratory data analysis, and building predictive models from data. You’ll also gain a powerful working environment for data science on your own computer, which together with code examples provided by the course will give you a jump start to applying the techniques you’ll learn to your own projects. For a flavour of what you’ll learn, check out this gallery of visualization samples https://www.analyticsignal.com/visualization/index.html drawn from the course workshops.

What data sources are used?
Using real E&P data sources is an important element of the hands-on computer workshops. This course makes extensive use of open data provided the UK Oil and Gas Authority and the UK National Data Repository. These data sources are not only typical of the challenges and complexity presented by E&P datasets, but also contain sufficient data quality issues to make them ideal for teaching the all important skills of data cleaning and manipulation. The course makes use of well logs, tops, seismic, and production data from these sources. The data are released in the public domain and you can continue to use these sources as you gain in experience after the course.

What data science tools are used?
The course introduces a data science toolkit based on Visual Studio Code from Microsoft. This free product is rapidly growing in popularity as an environment for Python coding and data science. We think this toolkit provides a best-in-class environment for learning data science and subsequently moving to work on real projects, and we provide a free extension to further enhance its data science capabilities. The toolkit components will be installed on your computer – the advantage of this approach over cloud-based platforms is that your data is never uploaded to the cloud (if security is an issue), and you will be able to continue working when offline (if internet access is an issue).

Day 1
Module 1. Overview

  • What is Data Science – Overview of the course, and an outline of the scope of data science.
  • Data Science for E&P – Addressing the role of data science in E&P and an example application to log data quality control and reconstruction using machine learning.

Module 2. Data Science Toolkit – Notebooks, Visualization, and Communication

  • Overview of the data science toolkit.
  • Hands-on workshop introducing the toolkit and getting started with Python scripts and notebooks.
  • Overview of how to manage and use Python packages.
  • Hands-on workshop on Python packages covering how to install and manage packages, and how to use packages from your Python notebooks.
  • Introduction to data visualization with SandDance.
  • Hands-on workshop introducing SandDance for interactive data visualization using a dataset of offshore wells from the UK Continental Shelf.
  • Overview of Markdown, a lightweight markup language for adding simple formatting to plain text documents, and documenting Python notebooks.
  • Hands-on workshop on Markdown for formatting text documents and annotating Python notebooks.

Day 2
Module 3. Python Fundamentals

  • Python 101 – Introduction to Python fundamentals including variables, types, statements, expressions, control flow, and functions.
  • Hands-on workshop on Python 101.
  • Python 102 – More Python fundamentals including modules, files and folders, data structures, and data frames.
  • Hands-on workshop on Python 102.

Day 3
Module 4. Computational Thinking

  • Introduction to Computational Thinking – the analytical and logical processes of decomposing a complex task and expressing it in a form that can be performed by a computer.
  • Hands-on workshop on Computational Thinking applied to the design and implementation an interactive base map for UK E&P data.

Module 5. Exploratory Data Analysis

  • Exploratory Data Analysis – Introduction to the Exploratory Data Analysis process and key Python packages for data analysis and statistical graphics.
  • Hands-on workshop on exploratory data analysis of daily production data from the Vulcan gas field in the UK Southern North Sea – reading data, handling dates, cleaning values, resampling, merging datasets, creating statistical graphics, exporting results.
  • Statistical Graphics – Why visualization is so important. Introduction to the Plotly package for statistical graphics. A classification of statistical graphics. Demonstration of a gallery of statistical graphics samples.
  • Hands-on workshop on statistical graphics – using the Plotly Express package to create a gallery of statistical graphics samples. Code snippets (small blocks of reusable code) help make exploratory data analysis more fun by accelerating the journey from raw data files to working graphics.
  • Descriptive Statistics – Introduction to univariate and multivariate statistics.

Day 4
Module 6. Exploring E&P Data

  • Well header data – Introduction to handling well header data (surface location and attributes) using the pandas and plotly packages.
  • Hands-on workshop on well header data – including import, data cleaning, date handling, posting well data on cultural/satellite base map and visualizing historical trends.
  • Production data – Introduction to handling field production data using the pandas and plotly packages.
  • Hands-on workshop on field production data – including import, data cleaning, date handling, queries, visualizing hierarchical and time series data.
  • Well log data – Introduction to handling wireline logs from LAS files using the lasio, pandas, and plotly packages.
  • Hands-on workshop on well log and tops data – including LAS file import, merging tops, and data visualization.
  • Seismic data – Introduction to handling seismic SEG-Y data using the segyio, and plotly packages.
  • Hands-on workshop on seismic data – including SEG-Y file import, extracting binary and trace headers, visualizing seismic trace data, and calculating seismic attributes.

Day 5
Module 7. Geospatial Data

  • Coordinate reference systems – Introduction to geographic and projected coordinate systems, defining a coordinate reference system from EPSG codes, offsets between coordinate reference systems, and transforming positions between reference systems.
  • Hands-on workshop on coordinate reference systems – how to define a coordinate reference system and transform positions using the pyproj package.

Module 8. Machine Learning Fundamentals

  • Machine Learning – introduction to the fundamentals of machine learning including background concepts, the different types of machine learning, and the basic workflow to build and evaluate models from data.
  • Supervised learning with regression – introduction to regression including random forest regression and performance evaluation.
  • Hands-on workshop on regression for reconstructing wireline logs.
  • Unsupervised Learning – introduction to unsupervised learning for dimensionality reduction, clustering and outlier detection.
  • Hands-on workshop on dimensionality reduction for wireline logs.
  • Explainable Machine Learning – introduction to explainable machine learning: techniques for looking inside the so-called black box models of machine learning to understand why particular predictions are made and which variables are important.

Practical Introduction to Geophysics and Seismic Interpretation (G063)

Tutor(s)

John Randolph: Consultant Geophysicist

Overview

This class provides an overview of seismic wave propagation, discusses important issues related to seismic data acquisition and imaging, and introduces students to practical seismic interpretation workflows including mapping techniques. Additional topics such as seismic attributes, borehole geophysics, reservoir characterization and reservoir surveillance are also included. Technical discussions will cover both conventional and unconventional reservoir topics along with some discussion of the relevance of geophysical methods to new energy systems.

The balance of topics covered and content can be discussed and refined with the client if required.

Objectives

You will learn to:

  1. Explain the fundamentals of seismic wave propagation and factors affecting resolution at the reservoir level.
  2. Calibrate seismic data using well data.
  3. Communicate effectively with data acquisition and processing specialists.
  4. Execute an effective interpretation workflow for a 2-D seismic project.
  5. Apply interpretation fundamentals to design a 3-D workflow on a workstation.
  6. Utilize multiple offset volumes to perform reconnaissance AVO analysis.
  7. Apply basic seismic sequence stratigraphic interpretation principles.
  8. Perform time-to-depth conversions using simplified velocity models.
  9. Utilize common seismic attributes to characterize reservoirs.
  10. Generate volumetric estimates of recoverable reserves (EUR).

Level and Audience

Fundamental. Intended for early career geoscientists and for technical support staff who work with seismic data.

Duration and Logistics

Classroom version: 6 days; a mix of lectures (65%) and hands-on exercises (35%). The course will be scheduled over two consecutive weeks to suit the client. The manual will be provided in digital format and participants will be required to bring a laptop or tablet computer to follow the lectures. Exercises are built around a publicly available dataset and comprise a ‘red thread’ that runs through the class.

Course Content

Workflow training begins with the calibration of seismic data, the establishment of correlation loops and structural contouring. More advanced workflows, including depth conversion and the practical application of AVO using multiple offset volumes in the interpretation process, will be demonstrated. Direct hydrocarbon indicators and basic principles of seismic sequence stratigraphy will also be discussed during the lectures and exercise sessions.

Daily Agenda

Day 1

Introduction

  • What is seismic data? What can it do? What are its limitations?
    • Introduction to seismic wave propagation and elastic behavior of rocks
    • How is seismic data recorded?
    • What is required to generate useful subsurface images?
    • What can go wrong?
    • The interpreter’s role in working with acquisition and processing specialists
  • Reservoir responses to seismic waves
  • Seismic resolution
  • Seismic reflectivity (Exercise 1.1)
  • Synthetic seismograms
  • Interpretation workflow (Exercises 2.1, 2.2, 2.3)
    • Understanding the basin
    • Calibration
    • Tying correlation loops

Day 2

  • Seismic acquisition
  • Data processing (Exercises 1.2, 1.3)
  • Seismic imaging (migration)
  • Project management & data loading
  • Reflectivity changes with angle – AVO
  • Elastic reflectivity response
  • Seismic amplitude case histories (Exercise 1.4)

Day 3

  • Structural Interpretation workflow (Exercises 2.4, 2.5, 2.6)
    • Mapping lineaments
    • Using time slices
    • Mapping the interpretation
  • Seismic inversion methods
  • Introduction to Quantitative Interpretation
  • Quiz – Waves, reflectivity, inversion, acquisition, processing

Day 4

  • Review day 3 quiz topics
  • Review interpretation exercises 2.1– 2.4
  • Team presentations of mapping exercises 2.5 & 2.6
  • Using flattened seismic images (workflow)
  • Introduction to seismic sequence stratigraphy
  • Stratigraphic interpretation (exercise)
  • Pore pressure estimation

Day 5

  • Seismic velocity measurements
  • Vertical seismic Profiles (VSPs)
  • Velocity interpretation, exercise 2.7
  • Workflow options for time/depth conversion
  • Interpretation workflows on a workstation
  • Seismic attribute applications (including AVO)
  • Estimation of recoverable reserves in a reservoir (EUR)

Day 6

  • Fractured reservoirs
  • Distributed acoustic sensing (DAS) 4D
  • Reservoir surveillance
  • Cross borehole tomography in horizontal wells
  • Characterization of shale reservoirs
  • Case history discussions
  • CO2 injection monitoring
  • Geothermal reservoirs

Wrap-up discussion

List of exercises

  • Seismic Well Tie Exercise: Using synthetic seismograms or VSPs.
  • Interpretation Exercise: Constructing an interpretation baseline for a project.
  • Interpretation Exercise: Tying interpretation loops for multiple horizons.
  • Interpretation Exercise: Constructing a lineament map to guide the interpretation.
  • Interpretation Exercise: Generating a structure map.
  • Interpretation Exercise: Construction and use of isochron maps.
  • Interpretation Exercise: Using 3-D time slices to validate an interpretation.
  • Interpretation Exercise: Using time slices to validate an interpretation.
  • Interpretation Exercise: Use of direct H/C indicators to estimate reservoir size.

An Introduction to the Principles of Geology for the Modern Energy Industry (G067)

Tutor(s)

Richard Swarbrick: Manager, Swarbrick GeoPressure

Overview

A successful modern energy system will depend on sustainable and careful stewardship and use of geological resources and sub-surface geology. This fundamental course is intended for all interested in learning the basics of geology in relation to the modern energy industry. Irrespective of background knowledge or skills, the course will introduce you to the key geological terminology and concepts in order to gain a better understanding of subsurface geology.

Duration and Logistics

Classroom version: A 1-day* course comprising a mix of lectures, case studies and exercises. The manual will be provided in digital format and participants will be required to bring a laptop or tablet computer to follow the lectures and exercises.

Virtual version: Two 4-hour online sessions presented over 2 days, comprising lectures and exercises. A digital manual will be distributed to participants before the course.

*A day in the field can be included where logistics allow, to observe a variety of rock types and for participants to gain a better understanding of key geological themes.

Level and Audience

Awareness. The course is intended to introduce the principal themes of geology for the modern energy industry. No previous knowledge is assumed and hence the course should also appeal to those without a science/geoscience background.

Objectives

You will learn to:

  1. Understand the future of energy provision and the role that geoscience plays.
  2. Recall the fundamental principles of geology including different rock types, geological time and stratigraphy.
  3. Understand how a sedimentary basin is formed and the different types of clastic depositional systems.
  4. Understand the basics of a geoscience subsurface toolkit including seismic imaging and other types of subsurface geological data.
  5. Appreciate the key elements of petroleum systems analysis with a focus on reservoirs.
  6. Recall the geological principles to be considered for carbon capture and storage (CCS) as well as hydrogen projects.
  7. Appreciate how a well is drilled into the subsurface and the types of wells that can be drilled.

Course Content

Session 1 Fundamental Principles of Geology

  • Structure of the Earth
  • Earth history
  • Basin formation and fill
  • Rock types
  • Sedimentary rocks
  • Sedimentary depositional systems
  • Principles of stratigraphy
  • Geological structures
  • Subsurface geoscience toolkit – seismic and other geological data

Session 2: Geology in the Modern Energy Industry

  • Petroleum systems analysis
  • Petroleum reservoir rocks
  • Principles of drilling into the subsurface
  • Reservoir geology for CCS and hydrogen projects

An Introduction to Sequence Stratigraphy (G068)

Tutor(s)

Gary Hampson: Imperial College London

Overview

Sequence stratigraphy is a key tool for subsurface interpretation of depositional systems and thereby predicting the distribution of reservoir, source rock and seal lithologies. The course will introduce the principles and methods of sequence stratigraphy, with a focus on continental, shallow-marine and deep-marine depositional settings. Participants will apply these principles and methods via the sequence stratigraphic interpretation of subsurface data (e.g. seismic, well-log, core, reservoir production data).

Duration and Logistics

Classroom version: 2 days including a mix of lectures and exercises. The course manual will be provided in digital format and participants will be required to bring along a laptop or tablet to follow the lectures and exercises.

Online version: Three 3.5-hour interactive online sessions presented over 3 days (afternoons in Europe and mornings in North America). A digital manual will be distributed to participants before the course.

Level and Audience

Fundamental. This course is designed for junior geoscientists working on a variety of subsurface energy projects who want to gain a basic understanding of sequence stratigraphy and its applications to subsurface data sets. Participants should have knowledge of basic sedimentology and subsurface geology.

Objectives

You will learn to:

  1. Understand the basic terminology of sequence stratigraphy.
  2. Describe the key surfaces and systems tracts.
  3. Appreciate the main components of depositional sequences in continental, shallow-marine and deep-marine systems.
  4. Evaluate a range of subsurface data in terms of sequence stratigraphic methods and models.

Course Content

Session 1: Key concepts and terminology

  • Introduction to stratigraphy
  • Lithostratigraphy and chronostratigraphy
  • Sequence stratigraphy controls and concepts
    • Accommodation / Relative sea level
    • Sediment supply
    • Regression vs. transgression
  • Sequence stratigraphy terminology
    • Key definitions
    • Formation of parasequences
    • Transgressive surfaces
    • Parasequence stacking patterns
    • Forced regressions
    • Incised valleys
    • Sequence boundaries
    • Interfluves
    • Shoreline trajectory
  • Exercise on identifying stratal patterns and key surfaces

Session 2: Exploration-scale applications

  • Depositional sequences
  • Seismic analysis
  • Well-log analysis
  • Application to exploration plays
  • Exercise on passive-margin exploration plays

Session 3: Reservoir-scale applications

  • Application to shallow-marine reservoirs
  • Exercise on continental and shallow-marine reservoirs
  • Application to deep-marine reservoirs
  • Exercise on deep-marine reservoirs