World-class training for the modern energy industry

Sand-rich and Confined Turbidite Systems: Annot, France (G048)

Tutor(s)

Mark Bentley: TRACS International, Ltd, and Langdale Geoscience

Ed Stephens: TRACS International, Ltd

Overview

Experience the classic, well-exposed Grès d’Annot turbidite outcrop area in the French Alps, an excellent analogue for deepwater exploration and development targets in structurally active slope and basin settings. This course will provide insights into field development challenges in relatively confined, high-net, submarine fan systems by using the world-class exposures along with static/dynamic models of the outcrops to support discussions. Seismic forward-models of 3-D and 4-D responses to waterfloods in these systems add to the conversation. The setting allows reservoirs to be observed at a range of scales from seismic- and field-scale, to the scale of a core plug, and is intended for a cross-discipline, geoscience and petroleum engineering audience.

Objectives

You will learn to:

  1. Assess discrete, structurally controlled sediment transport pathways into bathymetrically complex deepwater basins.
  2. Assess the role of relative structural and flow confinement on turbidite reservoir architecture.
  3. Characterize internal reservoir architecture in different parts of the system and assess the impact of heterogeneities on fluid flow.
  4. Formulate reservoir and simulation modeling requirements, in order to forecast production performance from reservoirs of these types.
  5. Determine the level of detail required for reservoir characterization under a range of fluid fills and production mechanisms.
  6. Understand how much of the observed heterogeneity would be detectable on seismic, and predict how fluid-sensitive heterogeneities would be visible on 4-D seismic for a field on production.

Exertion Level

This class requires a DIFFICULT exertion level. The Grès d’Annot is quite comfortable in the early summer, with temperatures of 10–25°C (50–80°F) and occasional rain showers. Some field locations require path-based hillwalking involving ascents up to 600m (2000 feet). The longest excursion involves a full-day hike and will be conducted at a leisurely pace.

Level and Audience

Advanced. The course is designed for integrated teams (geologists, geophysicists and reservoir engineers) evaluating development opportunities for fields in deepwater confined basins. The ideal group would be an asset team, who would be encouraged to bring their own field issues (and data where possible) to discuss live on the analogue

Duration and Logistics

A 5-day field course in the French Alps, comprising field activities and exercises on-site, unless weather doesn’t allow. The manual will be provided in paper format, with a digital copy available as a take-away.

Course Content

The Grès d’Annot displays a range of reservoir architectures from high concentration gravity flows. These are often interpreted as ‘tanks’ of sand in field development scenarios, where much good effort is placed on extracting large-scale sand architectures from seismic. The internal content of sands within these high-net architectures is often assumed to be relatively homogeneous, but this is often not the case. On this course, key heterogeneities that impact fluid flow will be observed, and their significance quantified using on-scale reservoir and simulation models of the outcrops. The extent to which these features can be seen on seismic is evaluated by forward-modeling the outcrops under initial reservoir conditions (3-D seismic forward-models) and after production (4-D seismic forward-models).

Topics covered include:

  • Reservoir characterization in high-net, deep marine systems
  • Petrophysical expression of reservoir character
  • Static modeling techniques for these systems appropriate to a range of fluid fills
  • Fluid response to these heterogeneities and dynamic (simulation) modeling requirements
  • Seismic expression of field-scale architectures
  • Development planning and well placement in these systems

Exercises on-site will include: observation of key heterogeneities; conceptual sketching of a range of architectures; reservoir and simulation model design for those architectures; and interactive discussions on the importance of the observed heterogeneities in development planning (including well placement and production forecasting).

Itinerary

Day 0

Arrive in Nice and course introduction

Day 1

Field visits: St Antonin and St Benoit – regional scale

  • Regional setting – proximal/distal mini-basins and regional fill-and-spill
  • Large-scale heterogeneity

Day 2

Field visits: Coulomp Valley – gross reservoir architecture

  • Overview of sand distribution – boundaries and contacts
  • Seismic expression – 3-D seismic forward modeling
  • Large scale production performance

Day 3

Field visits: Annot Town – internal reservoir architecture

  • Reservoir heterogeneities
  • Log vs core expression – petrophysical response
  • Fluid sensitivity to heterogeneities
  • Static/dynamic modeling and forecasting
  • Monitoring production – 4-D seismic forward modeling

Day 4

Field visits: Col de la Cayolle – contrasting systems

  • Lower net components of sand-rich systems
  • Contrasting reservoir heterogeneities
  • Effective flow properties and sweep efficiency under production
  • How models go bad

Day 5

Field visits: Chalufy – reservoir margins

  • Observing on-scale reservoir pinch-outs
  • Seismic resolution of field margins
  • Drilling the edge: well planning influenced by seismic character
  • Observing at outcrop architectures we normally miss

Day 6

Depart Nice

Geomechanics for Unconventional Developments (G051)

Tutor(s)

Marisela Sanchez-Nagel and/or Neal Nagel: OilField Geomechanics LLC

Overview

The course starts with an introduction to geomechanics fundamentals and then aspects relevant to unconventionals are developed, especially as they relate to the effect of fabric and heterogeneity. “Common knowledge” is challenged and popular procedures are presented in the light of geomechanics fundamentals and concepts. Recent topics such as cube developments and frac hits are discussed. This is an in-depth but engaging training course.

Duration and Logistics

Classroom version: 3 days; a mix of lectures (80%) and hands-on exercises and/or examples (20%). The manual will be provided in digital format and participants will be required to bring a laptop or tablet computer to follow the lectures and exercises.

Virtual version: Five 4-hour interactive online sessions presented over 5 days (morning sessions in North America, afternoon sessions in Europe). A digital manual and exercise materials will be distributed to participants before the course.

Interactive questioning and possibly breakout sessions will be utilized to reinforce learnings.

Level and Audience

Advanced. Intended for geoscientists, reservoir and completion engineers and petrophysicists who wish to understand how geomechanics can help them effectively develop their reservoirs.

Objectives

You will learn to:

  1. Understand the fundamentals of geomechanics including stress and strain, pore pressure evaluation, mechanical rock behavior and geomechanical models.
  2. Gain an understanding of conventional fracturing models in unconventional developments and the associated workflow.
  3. Describe the properties of naturally fractured reservoirs including their influence on drilling, stimulation and production.
  4. Perform reservoir quality evaluations including the assessment of poroperm, natural fractures, pressures and mechanical properties as quality indicators.
  5. Characterize shale properties including shale types, brittle versus ductile behavior and geological scenarios for completions.
  6. Assess the influence of the stress field and in-situ pore pressure on hydraulic fracture behavior.
  7. Assess the microseismic response with anisotropic stresses and the use of numerical models for interpretation and characterization.
  8. Characterize the effects of multiple well completions in a fractured rock mass.
  9. Assess the types of hydraulic fracture monitoring including microseismic monitoring.

Course Content

Part 1: Geomechanics Fundamentals
Module 0. Introduction to Unconventional Geomechanics

  • A few words about Oilfield Geomechanics
  • What is geomechanics? Definitions, history, relevance

Modules 1 – 2. Principles of stress and strain with field stress measurements

  • Basic of stress-strain and Mohr circles – applications to natural fractures
  • Effective stress concepts, role of pore pressure
  • Field stress variations, structural effects
  • Stresses around boreholes
  • Stress determination

Module 3. Pore pressure evaluation

  • Basic concepts and causes of overpressure
  • Pore pressure analyses – Eaton, Bowers’, NCT, effective stress methods
  • Analysis workflow
  • Challenges in Unconventional, field examples

Modules 4 – 5. Mechanical rock behavior

  • Mechanical properties, elasticity, plasticity, poroelasticity, viscoelasticity
  • Failure in rocks, failure criteria
  • Influence of faults and fracture, anisotropy
  • Laboratory testing, measurements, interpretation
  • Use of logs for mechanical properties, calibration, correlations

Module 6. Geomechanical modeling and workflows

  • Concepts and tools
  • 1D, 2D and 3D models; when and where appropriate
  • Geomechanics workflows in Unconventionals

Part 2: Geomechanics for Unconventional Developments

Modules 7-8. Hydraulic fracturing fundamentals

  • Basic, objectives, parameters
  • Frac containment, net pressure
  • Injection testing, DFITs
  • Horizontal wells and perforating
  • Proppants – 100 mesh and proppant transport
  • Fracturing fluids
  • Role of natural fractures
  • Injection zone selection effects

Module 9. Stress Shadows for single frac, multi-stage and multi-well

  • Mechanics of stress shadows
  • Effect on multi stages and clusters
  • Multi-well stress shadows
  • Tip shear stresses, Modeling examples Module

10. Rock fabric characterization

  • Description and quantification of rock fabric attributes – cores
  • Mechanical behavior, hydraulic behavior, testing in unconventionals
  • Stresses – critically stress fractures and hydraulic conductivity
  • Geometry and spatial occurrence, DFN models
  • Examples of evaluation in unconventional plays

Module 11. Shale geomechanics

  • Unconventional shale plays – shale types – challenges, critical issues
  • Geological scenarios for completions
  • Geomechanics of interfaces – HF interaction with interfaces, effect of fracture toughness
  • Shale properties static and dynamics examples from different plays – elastic parameters, time dependency, frictional properties
  • Myths to debunk – brittleness, complexity, SRV and microseismic, sand volume per lateral length

Module 12. Hydraulic fractures (HFs) and natural fractures (NFs) with operational effects

  • HFs propagation with NFs – effect of NF orientation
  • Dual HF propagating in a fractured media
  • Pressure Diffusion – coupled effects – stimulation benefits
  • Interaction HF – NF – crossing rules
  • Influence of NF characteristics – Dense vs sparse DFN, stress anisotropy, NF connectivity, parametric studies, with modeling examples
  • Influence of operational parameters, effects of fluid viscosity, injection rates – injection time
  • Influence of the stress field and in-situ pore pressure on HF behavior
  • Microseismicity response with anisotropic stresses – dry and wet MS events. Effect of initial aperture of the NFs

Module 13. Depletion effects and refracs

  • Depletion effects on HFs, depletion and in situ stresses
  • Parent -child evaluations, cluster efficiency, drainage volume
  • Frac hits (fracture Driven Interactions -FDIs) – types
  • Microseismic depletion delineation, cube evaluations

Module 14. Multi-well completions

  • Zipper fracs, stress perturbations, induced shear around zipper fracs
  • Interaction of HFs, overlapping HFs, models
  • Zipper fracs stress shadows
  • Effect of multiple well completions in fractured rock mass – sheared fabric – friction angle effect, geometry of zipper fracs. Effect on fabric stimulation
  • Sheared length, pressure diffusion

Module 15. HF monitoring and models (extra session as time permits)

Temperature logs, strengths and weaknesses, procedures. Effect of wellbore and completion
RA logging procedures, strength and weaknesses, tracer applications
Microseismic monitoring – MS as a geomechanics issue. Events, field data, MS imaging, passive seismology, triggered or induced seismicity, array design, surface vs downhole, source mechanisms, SRV from MS and drainage volume
Tiltmeters- direct fracture monitoring, measurements, patterns, cases
DAS/DTS basics, production estimations, cluster efficiency, integrated analysis
HF Models – advanced models fundamentals, input data, 2D models, pseudo (planar) 3D, Cell/Grid based models lumped pseudo 3D, Fully 3D, HF reservoir simulator

Cretaceous Lacustrine Carbonate Reservoirs of the South Atlantic (G045)

Tutor(s)

Paul Wright: Independent Consultant.

Overview

This course provides a description of the highly unusual carbonate reservoirs deposited in the Santos Basin (offshore Brazil) during the rift to sag stages of Atlantic opening, and a discussion of the controversies surrounding their origin. Particular emphasis will be given to the Aptian so-called microbialite reservoirs (Barra Velha Formation and equivalents), reviewing both of the main models for their development and evaluating the seismic and sedimentological models. A practical approach to characterizing these complex rock types will be provided. The course will include an introduction to non-marine carbonate systems in extensional settings, as well as a review of the South Atlantic coquina reservoirs.

Duration and Logistics

Classroom version: A 2-day classroom course. The manual will be provided in digital format and participants will be required to bring a laptop or tablet computer to follow the lectures and exercises.

Virtual version: Four 3-hour interactive online sessions presented over 4 days (mornings in North America and afternoons in Europe). A digital manual will be distributed to participants before the course. Some reading is to be completed by participants off-line.

The course content and details can be altered to fill 1, 2 or 3 days for in-house delivery.

Level and Audience

Advanced. Intended for technical staff and managers who are involved in exploration for or exploitation of carbonates along the margins of the South Atlantic, or are interested in furthering their understanding of carbonate reservoirs in general.

Objectives

You will learn to:

  1. Recognize the range of carbonate systems that develop in extensional settings.
  2. Describe the highly unusual and prolific Aptian carbonate reservoirs of the Santos Basin.
  3. Contrast the models for the formation of these chemogenic rocks and discuss their differences.
  4. Evaluate the strikingly different reservoir characteristics that emerge from the two models.

Course Content

Themes to be covered are:

  • Introducing non-marine carbonate systems in extensional settings
    • the continuum from lacustrine carbonates through to hydrothermal travertines
    • microbial carbonates
  • The tectonic settings of the pre-salt lacustrine carbonates
  • The Barra Velha and its equivalents
    • facies, cyclicity, porosity formation, clay mineral diagenesis, reservoir rock characterization and rock fabric classification
    • isotopic data and its significance
  • Evaluating the seismic evidence for Barra Velha platforms
  • Age equivalent Barra Velha facies and microbialites in Brazil (onshore and offshore) and West Africa
  • Current models for the coquinas reservoirs of Brazil and West Africa

Characterization of Clastic Reservoirs: Workflows for Reservoir Evaluation (G035)

Tutor(s)

Vitor Abreu: President, ACT-Geoscience; Adjunct Professor, Rice University

Overview

Reservoir mapping at production scale has to be performed with an understanding of clastic depositional systems, with full integration of core, core-plugs, well logs, seismic and production and engineering data. The variation in reservoir architecture of most common deposition-system morphotypes strongly influences development and production strategies, as well as in mapping techniques for not only the field scale but also to increase chances of finding near-field opportunities. The workshop examines common reservoir facies in transitional-marine to deep water systems, from fluvio-, wave- and tidal-dominated deltas, incised valleys, deep water channel systems and distributary channel lobe systems (deep water fans). Discussions include dimensional data of sand bodies in the different environments and recognition criteria in cores, well logs and seismic. The class will present optimized workflows for reservoir mapping, including the definition of the deliverables that need to be achieved in different business stages, focusing on when, why and how to develop them.

Duration and Logistics

Classroom version: 3 days; a mix of lectures (55%), core observation (10%) and hands-on exercises (35%). The manual will be provided in digital format and participants will be required to bring a laptop or tablet computer to follow the lectures and exercises.

Virtual version: Five 4-hour interactive online sessions presented over 5 days (morning sessions in North America and afternoon sessions in Europe). A printed manual and exercise materials will be distributed to participants before the course and several exercises are to be completed by participants off-line.

Level and Audience

Advanced. This course is intended for geologists, geophysicists and petrophysicists with basic training in sequence stratigraphy and basic clastic facies.

Objectives

You will learn to:

  1. Recognize different environments of deposition (EoDs) in cores, emphasizing typical facies stacking in common transitional marine and deep marine reservoirs.
  2. Classify facies and stacking in typical transitional marine to deep marine EoDs.
  3. Mechanisms for sediment transport in different EoDs and impact on reservoir rock properties.
  4. Integrate core and core plug information in reservoir analysis, tying to well log and seismic data.
  5. Recognize typical log patterns in different depositional systems.
  6. Recognize typical seismic map views and cross-sectional views of sand-rich EoDs.
  7. Apply mapping techniques for well logs and seismic with emphasis on identification of EoDs.
  8. Make pre-drill predictions based on understanding of EoDs and seismic response.
  9. Understand dimensional data for sandbodies in different EoDs
  10. Implement reservoir mapping workflows that emphasize data integration and focus on deliverables in different business stages.

Course Content

  • Classification of clastic depositional environments.
  • How to recognize different environments of deposition (EoDs) in cores, emphasizing typical facies stacking in common transitional marine and deep marine reservoirs.
  • Facies classification and stacking in typical transitional marine to deep marine EoDs.
  • Sediment transport mechanisms in different EoDs and impact in reservoir rock properties.
  • Typical log patterns in different depositional systems.
  • Typical seismic map views and cross-sectional views of sand-rich (EoDs).
  • How to properly integrate core and core plug information in reservoir analysis, tying to well log and seismic data.
  • Mapping techniques for well logs and seismic with emphasis on identification of EoDs.
  • Pre-drill prediction based on understanding of EoDs and seismic response.
  • Dimensional data for sandbodies in different EoDs.
  • Reservoir mapping workflows emphasizing data integration and main deliverables in different business stages.

Applied Concepts in Fractured Reservoirs with Discussions on Production, EOR, CO2 Sequestration and Geothermal Energy (G039)

Tutor(s)

John Lorenz and Scott Cooper: FractureStudies LLC

Overview

This course explores the wide range of structures that fall under the term ‘fracture’ and examines the effects of different fracture types on permeability in conventional and unconventional hydrocarbon reservoirs, and for EOR, CO2 sequestration and geothermal energy applications. The course establishes an understanding of natural fractures by explaining fracture mechanics and the origins of fractures, and then presents practical approaches to analyzing and working with fractures. Topics will include: collecting fracture data; measuring fracture attributes; differentiating natural from induced fractures; calibrating fracture data (from core, CT scans, outcrops, image logs and seismic); and determining in situ stresses. The course also describes how to predict fracture types in different structural domains and in different types of reservoirs, how the differences between extension and shear fractures control both individual fracture permeability and fracture network interconnectedness, and how to assess the interaction between natural and hydraulic stimulation fractures. Discussions of the applications to CO2 sequestration, geothermal energy, hydrocarbon reservoirs and enhanced recovery are included.

Duration and Logistics

Classroom version: A 3-day classroom course comprising a mix of lectures (80%) and hands-on exercises (20%). The manual will be provided in digital format and participants should bring a laptop or tablet computer to follow the lectures and exercises. A highlight of the classroom version is the inclusion of a hands-on, 65-plus piece teaching collection of natural and induced fractures in core.

Virtual version: Five 4-hour interactive online sessions presented over 5 days (mornings in North America and afternoons in Europe). A digital manual and exercise materials will be distributed to participants before the course. Some reading and exercises are to be completed by participants off-line.

Level and Audience

Advanced. Intended for geoscientists, reservoir and completion engineers, and petrophysicists, who wish to characterize and understand fracture systems and their effects on reservoir permeability and fluid flow. The class includes assessing how fracture permeability is affected by the in-situ stress system, and the interaction of natural fractures with hydraulic stimulation fractures.

Objectives

You will learn to:

  1. Appreciate how different fracture types have different effects on reservoir permeability and fluid flow.
  2. Assess how fracture types can vary by lithology within the same structural setting.
  3. Establish how fracture types can vary by structural setting within the same lithology.
  4. Assess fracture permeability and how it can be sensitive to changes in the in-situ stress during production and injection.
  5. Recognize fracture type using the small sampling of a reservoir offered by core and how this can provide a conceptual model for differentiating radial from anisotropic drainage, or flow away from the well during injection.
  6. Appreciate the interaction of natural fractures with hydraulic stimulation fractures as utilized in hydrocarbon, sequestration and geothermal industries, depending on fracture type and orientation relative to the in-situ stresses.
  7. Use insights into fracture mechanics and the origins of fractures, and gain an understanding of natural fractures and their potential effects on fluid flow.

Course Content

Part 1: Understanding natural fractures – types, dimensions and origins

  • Nomenclature and fracture classification systems
  • Fracture characteristics and dimensions – individual fractures, fracture populations and fracture systems
  • Identifying natural fracture types
  • The geologic origin of stress systems capable of fracturing rock
  • The mechanics of fracturing rock in extension and shear
  • The essential importance of pore pressure in fracture mechanics
  • Correlating laboratory and outcrop fracture observations to theoretical fracture mechanics
  • Mechanical stratigraphy: fracturing in carbonates vs sandstones vs shales
  • Fractures related to faults and anticlines: the characteristics of fracture corridors and sweet spots
  • Additional fracture types

Part 2: Measuring and analyzing natural fractures

  • Planning a fracture study: getting the most out of fracture measurements
  • Fracture data sources: core, CT scans, outcrops, image logs and seismic data
  • Fracture data from engineering tests
  • Techniques, methodologies and work flows
  • Coring and core processing protocols
  • Logging core for optimum fracture characterization
  • Distinguishing natural from drilling-induced fractures
  • Analyzing fracture data for use in fluid-flow models
  • Case studies: estimating fracture effectiveness from core data

Part 3: The effects of natural fractures

  • Fractured-reservoir classification
  • Effects of fractures on drilling and coring
  • Fracture volumetrics
  • Case studies: the Midale Field, the Rulison Field and the Spraberry Formation
  • The permeability behavior of individual fractures
  • The permeability and flow behavior of fracture systems
  • The sensitivity of individual fractures and fracture-system permeability to changing stresses during production and injection
  • The effects of fault and fracture-controlled sweet spots and barriers
  • Completions: the interaction between natural and hydraulic fractures

Uncertainty and Risk in Development: Quantifying Subsurface Risk and Uncertainty for Producing Assets (G038)

Tutor(s)

Mark Bentley, Mark Cook or Richard Oxlade: TRACS International, Ltd

Overview

The quantification of risk and uncertainty is often discussed in the context of exploration and appraisal, yet most of the upstream E&P business concerns decision-making in producing assets. Handling uncertainty in development and production must deal with a growing and often imperfect production database, against a backdrop of constantly changing circumstances. As the life cycle progresses, initial uncertainties over volume and productivity narrow but are supplanted by new uncertainties, such as sweep efficiency, fine scale architecture and changing responses to new production mechanisms and techniques. These new issues demand a change in approach for the quantification of uncertainty, and vigilance is required to avoid the subsurface interpretation simply collapsing to a best guess. This short, focused workshop explores the key aspects required to manage subsurface uncertainties and associated risks during the producing field life, in terms of people, tools and approach. It will close with a set of questions to ask yourself and others, suitable for reference in informal personal or team reviews, peer reviews and peer assists.

Duration and Logistics

Classroom version: A 1-day course comprising a mix of lectures, case studies and exercises. The manual will be provided in digital format and participants will be required to bring a laptop or tablet computer to follow the lectures and exercises.

Virtual version: Two 4-hour interactive online sessions presented over 2 days (mornings in North America and afternoons in Europe). A digital manual and exercise materials will be distributed to participants before the course. Some reading and several exercises are to be completed by participants off-line.

Level and Audience

Advanced. Designed for geoscientists, reservoir engineers, petrophysicists, well technologists, team leaders and management involved in the quantification of risk and uncertainty in fields under development or in production. The class will provide an opportunity for learning, inspiration and discussion with other modelers.

Objectives

You will learn to:

  1. Resolve misunderstandings over definitions in risk and uncertainty.
  2. Understand the key differences between uncertainty and risk in development, compared to exploration and appraisal.
  3. Explain and mitigate common errors in handling probability.
  4. Describe workflows for handling risk and uncertainty in development decisions.
  5. Account for the impact of cognitive bias in E&P, and what to do about it.

Course Content

  1. Context
    • The driving issue: decision-making in producing assets
    • The key difference between uncertainty and risk in E&A vs development and production
    • Why it matters – some examples
  2. Practice
    • People – recognizing personality and imperatives, sources of bias, common heuristics and how to minimize them
    • Tools – the choices available, balancing simplicity and complexity, determinism and probability, and the pros and cons of each
    • Team approach – stitching tools of choice into a coherent methodology, the primacy of the underlying concept, the choice between forward modelling and inversion, and the key to successful team-based approaches beyond initial framing sessions · The Forth Rail Bridge example
  3. Advice

How to Make a Good Reservoir Model: It’s Not the Software, It’s the Design (G036)

Tutor(s)

Mark Bentley: TRACS International Ltd and Langdale Geoscience

Overview

How can you tell the difference between a ‘good’ reservoir model and a ‘bad’ one? This short, focused class is designed to draw out the common reasons for ‘good’ and ‘bad’ outcomes, under the premise that models add value only when they add clear value to business decisions. The theme throughout the event will be the overriding issue of model design and the five areas of common error: model purpose; selection of elements; use of determinism and probability; model scale; and uncertainty handling. Advice will be given on how to review models, what questions to ask the model builders, and how to determine whether the output from models can be relied upon and used to support decisions. The course will close with a set of questions to ask yourself and others, suitable for reference in peer reviews or assists.

Duration and Logistics

Classroom version: A 1-day course comprising a mix of lectures, case studies and exercises. The manual will be provided in digital format and participants will be required to bring a laptop or tablet computer to follow the lectures and exercises.

Virtual version: Two 4-hour interactive online sessions presented over 2 days (mornings in North America and afternoons in Europe). A digital manual and exercise materials will be distributed to participants before the course. Some reading and several exercises are to be completed by participants off-line.

Level and Audience

Fundamental. Designed for people who want an update or refresh on working with reservoir models without having to spend a week out of the office. The class will provide an opportunity for learning, inspiration and discussion with other modelers.

Objectives

You will learn to:

  1. Explain the common causative factors for modelling ‘disappointments’.
  2. Define model purpose and explain the use of framing.
  3. Understand the fluid sensitivity to selection of model elements.
  4. Describe techniques for handling small-scale detail in large models.
  5. Be able to select between techniques for quantifying uncertainty.
  6. Implement QC tips to evaluate your (and other people’s) models.

Course Content

The five reasons why many models fail, and how to avoid them:

  1. Model purpose
    • Why model at all? What do we understand by ‘fit for purpose’?
  2. Elements and architecture
    • Getting the building blocks right
  3. Determinism and probability
    • Concept-driven (intuitive) geostatistics
    • Balancing probabilistic and deterministic tools>
    • The importance of trends
  4. Scaling
    • Beyond upscaling – pitching the models at the correct scale
    • Multi-scale modelling
    • The REV
  5. Uncertainty
    • Overcoming heuristics
    • Modelling – what you don’t know

Characterization, Modeling, Simulation and Development Planning in Deepwater Clastic Reservoirs, Tabernas, Spain (G076)

Tutor(s)

Mark Bentley: TRACS International Ltd and Langdale Geoscience

Ed Stephens: TRACS International

Overview

This course is led by a production geologist and reservoir engineer involved in deepwater reservoir development, and is presented as a practical reservoir discussion rather than purely a traditional geological field trip. The objective of this field course is to explore the reservoir modelling and petroleum engineering aspects of deepwater clastic reservoirs. The discussions highlight the linkage from depositional processes to geological architecture and flow heterogeneity in development planning. The Tabernas outcrops are very well exposed and offer examples of sand-rich and debris-flow-dominated reservoirs, high net:gross fan systems and classic mud-dominated facies. In particular, they give excellent insights into the reservoir heterogeneities occurring within apparently continuous ‘sand lobes’ and major channels.

Duration and Logistics

A 5-day field course based in Almeria, Spain, comprising a mix of field activities and exercises. Transport will be by SUV on paved roads and unpaved tracks.

Level and Audience

Advanced. The course is largely aimed at geologists and reservoir engineers working on deepwater developments. The course is best suited to multidisciplinary team of geologists, geophysicists, petrophysicists and reservoir engineers.

Exertion Level

This class requires a MODERATE exertion level. There will be multiple walks of up to 1km (0.5 mile) most days. The longest walk of the class is approximately 2km (1 mile), with an ascent (and descent) of 75m (245 ft). The field area is in Europe’s only desert region and participants should expect high temperatures and an arid working environment. Participants should also be prepared for sudden and heavy rain showers.

Objectives

You will learn to:

  1. Assess the genetic processes that produce slumps, slides, debrites and high/low density turbidites, and explain why the concept of confinement underpins the description of heterogeneity in deepwater clastic systems.
  2. Evaluate the extent to which pay is under-/over-estimated in mud-rich/sand-rich systems, respectively, and the resulting errors in STOIIP and PI estimation.
  3. Organise a detailed sedimentological description into key reservoir elements and build an architectural model using those elements.
  4. Assess the basic principle of flow in porous media (Darcy) and describe how flow heterogeneity varies in layered and amalgamated clastic systems.
  5. Appraise the contrasting heterogeneities in sand- and mud-rich systems and determine how much detail is required in a reservoir description based on a consideration of fluid type and production mechanism.
  6. Evaluate how kv/kh impacts recovery in typical deepwater clastic architectures; optimally locate a well to optimize sweep for a range of architectural cases.
  7. Judge length scale variations for a typical deepwater clastic system, and discuss how this would be handled in a reservoir modelling and simulation context.

Course Content

This course covers the following topics:

  • Types of submarine fan systems
  • Influence of topography on reservoir distribution and quality
  • Reservoir heterogeneity
  • Reservoir modelling and simulation
  • Upscaling from core to simulation scale
  • Well selection and placement
  • Development planning for submarine fan reservoirs

Itinerary

Day 0: Arrival in Almeria

  • Evening course safety brief and introductory lecture.
  • Group dinner at the hotel.

Day 1: Overview of the Tabernas Basin

  • The class begins with overviews, orientation and scale of the Tabernas Basin, and a general introduction to deepwater clastic sedimentology and terminology
  • Visit to the basin margin to view coarse non-marine and shallow marine clastics which mark the initiation of sedimentation in the basin
  • Visit to the deepwater basin-fill succession to see the types of depositional environments in the basin – slumps, slides, debris flows, unconfined and confined turbidites

Day 2: Muddy Fan

  • Visit to a series of outcrop sections within a low net:gross submarine fan and typical geometries of those environments – thin-bedded turbidite sheet sands in confined and unconfined settings
  • Discuss thresholds of net:gross and the particular issue of thin bed pay
  • Use an outcrop-based model example to explore the concept of effective net from an engineering rather than a purely geological perspective

Day 3: Feeder Systems

  • Visit a series of outcrop sections to analyse the muddy feeder system and the sandy feeder system. Here we will study the individual architectures of the channelised units and discuss the facies, stacking patterns and evidence for their interpretation as feeder systems
  • Thin-skin sliding and soft sedimentary tectonics are also viewed in deeper, more distal sediments

Day 4: Sandy Fan

  • Visit a series of outcrop sections within a high net:gross submarine fan; high concentration, amalgamated sands in the lower fan, sheet-like tabular sands in the upper fan
  • Visit to the onlap margin of the body to view the overall geometries. Here we will conceive an overall sedimentological model for the outcrops and take a reservoir engineering perspective on the observed heterogeneity – does any of it matter? Outcome of this discussion will link through to a well design exercise
  • Outcrop-based permeability data will be used to support the observations on heterogeneity and to discuss how small-scale heterogeneity can be reasonably scaled into a simulation model

Day 5: Isolated Channel

  • Visit a series of outcrop sections to view Tabernas’ famous isolated channel and take the opportunity to describe and discuss intra-channel architectures and likely morphologies
  • Participants will carry out a modelling exercise on the channel based on their observations. A model developed for the class will be used as a basis for discussion of development planning in submarine fan systems

Day 6: Depart Almeria

De-risking Carbonate Exploration (G008)

Tutor(s)

Paul Wright: Independent Consultant

Overview

This is a ‘what you really need to know about carbonates’ course, in order to attempt to de-risk carbonate prospects. Carbonate rocks are complex; however, there are basic principles that provide a framework in which such complexity may be rendered understandable. The course focuses on large scale rules, risks, uncertainties, strategies and workflows, with a heavy emphasis on seismic facies. It does not focus on appraisal or development aspects.

Duration and Logistics

Classroom version: A 4-day classroom course comprising a mix of lectures (75%) and exercises (25%). The manual will be provided in digital format and participants will be required to bring a laptop or tablet computer to follow the lectures and exercises.

Virtual version: Eight 3-hour interactive online sessions presented over 8 days (mornings in North America and afternoons in Europe). A digital manual and exercise materials will be distributed to participants before the course. Some reading and several exercises are to be completed by participants off-line.

Level and Audience

Advanced. This course is really aimed at explorationists with at least a basic knowledge of carbonates but will also prove useful to more experienced geoscientists by providing a synthesis of recent advances in understanding carbonate reservoirs, supported by potentially highly practical methodologies for framing uncertainties for reservoir presence.

Objectives

You will learn to:

1. Frame likely carbonate plays in relation to a given stratigraphic age and basin type.

2. Identify the main types of carbonate platform as seen from seismic data, de-risk certain types of features and assess the likely presence of key seismic facies.

3. Evaluate for a given interval and platform type the likely reservoir facies (platform interior, carbonate sands, reefs, slope systems and chalks) and assess the likelihood of reservoir presence.

4. Understand how the development of primary and secondary porosity has varied through geologic time and how these changes impact upon reservoir quality.

5. Appreciate the principal modes of formation of dolomites and the predictive uses of different dolomite models.

6. Understand and identify the diverse origins of palaeokarstic macroporosity, associated risks and the different strategies for developing palaeokarstic reservoirs.

Course Content

The course consists of lectures and exercises. The lectures focus on specific reservoir systems based on broad seismic facies and develop the methodology for defining the likelihood of reservoir-prone facies and of the diagenetic conditions for reservoir presence. For each major reservoir type a set of key associations and factors are evaluated as a form of flexible workflow. This approach is complemented by a series of exercises, including seismic, for identifying possible leads and carrying out de-risking procedures.

Topics

  • A refresher on the basics of carbonate rock composition
  • Carbonate platform types and seismic expression
  • Plays, traps and reservoirs – generalities
  • How carbonates change through time and how to predict likely reservoir-prone systems at different stratigraphic intervals
  • Source rocks, including intraplatformal basins
  • Isolated carbonate buildups – de-risking targeting carbonate ‘bumps’
  • Platform margin plays: facies-controlled reservoirs and diagenetic controls (dolomite, fracturing, karst)
  • Platform interiors – Late Paleozoic ice-house grainstone-to-build and fill systems, greenhouse systems and dolomite models
  • Carbonate sands – tide, wave (barriers islands, infralittoral wedges) and internalites. Emphasizing how to determine possible sandbody geometries from regional to local data sets
  • Slope and basinal carbonate plays, including fan lobe systems and chalks
  • Dolomites – especially HTDs and hydrothermal burial corrosion-related reservoirs
  • Paleokarst – types, facies, identification, exploration strategies and risk

Progressive Deformation in the Arbuckle and Wichita Mountains: Implications for Mid-Continent and Resource Plays – A Field Seminar (G083)

Tutor(s)

Kevin J. Smart, David A. Ferrill, Adam J. Cawood: Southwest Research Institute

Overview

This field seminar will explore natural deformation in Paleozoic rocks in and around the Wichita and Arbuckle uplifts in southern Oklahoma. Investigating mechanical stratigraphy and the regional tectonic setting provides the context for understanding deformation features, such as joints, shear fractures, folds, faults and stylolites. Outcrop observations will be tied to the deformation conditions under which they developed, and related to the subsurface (cores, logs and stress data), to illustrate the critical importance of understanding deformation in the subsurface, including both pre-existing natural deformation and as analogs for deformation produced by induced hydraulic fracturing.

Duration and Logistics

A 4-day field course, comprising a mix of field exercises (85%) and classroom work (15%). The course will start in Lawton, Oklahoma, and end near Ardmore, Oklahoma.

Level and Audience

Advanced. The course is aimed at geoscientists, petrophysicists, reservoir engineers and production engineers working in mechanically layered, deformed rocks in Oklahoma or other relatively gently deformed sedimentary foreland basins. It will be of particular interest to any geoscientists, petrophysicists and engineers working in unconventional reservoirs, including those in the Anadarko Basin.

Exertion Level

This course requires a LOW exertion level. Fieldwork is in southern Oklahoma, where the climate can be variable according to the season. Transportation is by SUVs. Most driving is on black-top roads, and most outcrops are adjacent to roads or within inactive quarries with uneven ground, where long strenuous hikes are not needed to access the exposures.

Objectives

You will learn to:

  1. Identify small-scale deformation features that are common in the SCOOP/STACK plays of the Anadarko basin and other unconventional reservoirs.
  2. Interpret stress conditions and stress evolution from small-scale deformation features.
  3. Characterize mechanical stratigraphy based on lithostratigraphy and rock strength information.
  4. Relate deformation style to tectonic setting of southern Oklahoma.
  5. Assess the role of mechanical stratigraphy, stress conditions and pre-existing deformation features on rock behavior, including fracture prediction in unconventional and conventional reservoirs.
  6. Consider, in general terms, the behavior of lithological units under different well completion strategies.
  7. Evaluate geomechanical issues for common petroleum and unconventional resource applications such as well design, borehole stability and hydraulic fracturing.

Course Content

The course will be primarily field-based with some initial classroom time. The course will explore outcrops in the Wichita and Arbuckle uplifts, and discuss relevance to deformation in and around the Anadarko Basin. The variety of rock types and the locations along the southwestern edge of the Anadarko Basin provide examples of the major tectonic influences and rock deformation responses, including progressive deformation that can inform interpretations of the subsurface hydrocarbon plays.

Draft Itinerary

Day 0

  • Travel to Lawton, Oklahoma.
  • Welcome lecture and safety brief.

Day 1

Field visit: Wichita Mountains

  • Introductory lectures covering basic concepts of faulting, fracturing and mechanical stratigraphy, and regional tectonic setting
  • Field trip to outcrops in and around the Wichita Mountains
  • Return to Lawton, Oklahoma

Day 2

Field visit: Slick Hills

  • Field trip to outcrops in the Slick Hills
  • Continue to Ardmore, Oklahoma

Day 3

Field visit: Arbuckle Mountains

  • Field trip to outcrops of Paleozoic strata in and around the Arbuckle Mountains, including Arbuckle anticline transect
  • Return to Ardmore, Oklahoma

Day 4

Field visit: Arbuckle Mountains

  • Field trip to outcrops of Paleozoic strata in and around the Arbuckle Mountains – explore 3-dimensionality of deformation, stress history and progressive deformation
  • Course wrap-up and departure