World-class training for the modern energy industry

Geothermal Sedimentary Systems: Exploration, Development and Production Principles (E574)

Tutor(s)

Mark Ireland: Senior Lecturer in Energy Geoscience, Newcastle University

Overview

This course covers all aspects of various sedimentary geothermal systems, from exploration through to production. It is intended as an introduction to the entire lifecycle of sedimentary geothermal resources, covering aspects of geoscience and engineering.

Duration and Logistics

Four 3.5-hour interactive online sessions presented over 4 days. A digital manual and exercise materials will be distributed to participants before the course.

Level and Audience

Fundamental. The course is intended for all career stage industry professionals and early career researchers with a geoscience or geo-engineering background, including those with a familiarity in oil and gas production.

Objectives

You will learn to:

  1. Understand the basic principles of heat generation within the upper crust.
  2. Describe the key characteristics of sedimentary geothermal resources and reservoirs.
  3. Examine the geothermal play concept.
  4. Establish exploration methods using oil and gas data to assess geothermal resources in sedimentary basins.
  5. Illustrate the development and production options for these geothermal resources.
  6. Appreciate the principle geological hazards, in relation to geothermal projects, including induced seismicity.
  7. Appreciate the range of environmental impacts associated with geothermal developments.
  8. Appreciate project risks and uncertainties in developing geothermal resources.

Course Content

This course will focus on the lifecycle of sedimentary geothermal resources and the associated project workflows.

Session 1: Principles of sedimentary geothermal resources

  • Sedimentary basins: formation and types
  • Heat flow in the upper crust
  • Geothermal play system types

Session 2: Geothermal resource characterization

  • Geological characterization of resources
  • Geothermal sedimentary reservoirs characterization
  • Demand side importance

Session 3: Exploration to production

  • Geothermal exploration and production
  • Geohazards and environmental considerations
  • Case studies

Session 4: Impacts, risks and uncertainties

  • Uncertainties and challenges in developing geothermal resources
  • Integration of geothermal resources into energy systems planning

Integration of Rocks and Petrophysical Logs (G059)

Tutor(s)

Greg Samways: Director at GeoLumina

Overview

This course will focus on a simple petrophysical workflow entailing the determination of rock properties from conventional logs and core analysis data. Lithology, porosity, permeability and saturations will be determined using a variety of different analytical and simple modelling methods. Emphasis will be placed on understanding the importance of calibration, integration, and validation of the results of each method, based on a fundamental understanding of the geological controls on petrophysical properties.

Objectives

You will learn to:

  1. Understand the fundamental geological controls on reservoir properties.
  2. Describe how these properties are measured in the laboratory using conventional and special core analysis methods.
  3. Characterize the ways in which lithology and porosity are determined from well logs and calibrated with core analysis, and how permeability may be estimated in the subsurface away from core control.
  4. Evaluate how the Archie equation is used to determine saturation in cores and from well logs, and the uncertainties and limitations with this method
  5. Investigate how saturation-height models can be created from special core analysis data, thereby avoiding some of the limitations of the Archie method.
  6. Interpret typical conventional log and core analysis data using Excel spreadsheets.
  7. Experiment with the sensitivities of input parameters for various determinations, such as V-Shale, porosity and saturation.

Level and Audience

Fundamental. This course is intended for non-petrophysicists who require a grounding in the petrophysical determination of lithology, porosity and saturation from conventional and special core analysis, and conventional open-hole logs.

Duration and Logistics

Classroom version: 3-days with a mix of lectures and exercises. The manual will be provided in digital format and participants will be required to bring a laptop or tablet computer to follow the lectures and exercises.

Virtual version: Five, 3.5-hour interactive online sessions presented over 5 days (mornings in North America and afternoons in Europe). The course will focus on problem-solving using real-world data and use a series of Excel workbooks. A digital manual and exercise materials will be distributed to participants before the course.

Course Content

It is important to become familiar with all the different analytical approaches available and consider all the possibilities, enabling the interpreter to make a sound judgment as to the accuracy and validity of the analytical results they achieve. The sections below provide a more detailed outline of the program.

Session1: Fundamentals of Rock Properties

Presentation – Fundamentals of Rock Properties: Fluid-Rock Interactions and Their Geological Controls. What are the fundamental rock properties that control reservoir quality? If we are going to validate the accuracy of our reservoir parameter measurements, which must understand the fundamentals of the properties we are measuring. Understanding these fundamentals will enable us to constrain predictions away from well control. We must keep our models of the pore systems grounded in the geology.

Activity – Group Discussion: The nature of pore systems in the trainee’s reservoirs. Collaborative mind-mapping exercise using Mural.

Session 2: Measurement of Rock Properties

Presentation – Measurement of Rock Properties: Fundamentals, Limitations and Uncertainties in Conventional and Special Core Analysis. How are the key petrophysical rock properties measured in core? How reliable and comparable are the data? How do we validate the measurements?

Activity – Group Discussion: Consider the nature and reliability of core analysis in the trainee’s reservoirs. How are your cores collected, managed, processed and analyzed? What are the uncertainties and limitations of your data? Are there discrepancies between methods? Collaborative mind-mapping exercise using Mural.

Session 3: Lithology, Porosity and Permeability

Presentation – Determination of Lithology, Porosity and Permeability from Conventional Open-hole Logs. Conventional Open Hole Logging Tools: Function, Limitations and Uncertainties. Which tools do we use to determine lithology and porosity? How do we determine permeability? What are the tools really measuring and how can we validate the results by calibrating to core measurements?

How can advanced logs such as Borehole Images, Electron Capture Spectroscopy and NMR help us to refine our interpretations?

Exercise – Lithology, Porosity and Permeability Determination Case Study in an Excel Workbook.

Session 4: Archie Water Saturation

The Archie Equation: Application and Limitations in Core and Log Analysis. Where do all the inputs for the Archie equation come from? Do we believe them? What can we do when different analytical methods give different values for key input parameters? Should we rely on the core measurements or the log measurements? What can we do when Archie fails in shaly lithologies? What alternatives are offered by advanced logging techniques such as NMR and Dielectric Logs?

Exercise – Saturation Determination Case Study in an Excel Workbook using the Archie equation and Pickett Plots.

Session 5: Saturation-Height Analysis and Reservoir Summation

Presentation – Determination of Saturation vs. Height in the Reservoir. Creating a saturation model based on special core analysis. Many petrophysicists prefer to determine saturation using a saturation-height model based on special core analysis which is independent of fluid properties.

Reservoir Summation: What is the difference between net rock, net sand and net pay?

Exercise – Saturation-Height Case Study in an Excel Workbook. Determination of Net, Rock, Net Sand and Net Pay.

Practical Introduction to Geophysics and Seismic Interpretation (G063)

Tutor(s)

John Randolph: Consultant Geophysicist

Overview

This class provides an overview of seismic wave propagation, discusses important issues related to seismic data acquisition and imaging, and introduces students to practical seismic interpretation workflows including mapping techniques. Additional topics such as seismic attributes, borehole geophysics, reservoir characterization and reservoir surveillance are also included. Technical discussions will cover both conventional and unconventional reservoir topics along with some discussion of the relevance of geophysical methods to new energy systems.

The balance of topics covered and content can be discussed and refined with the client if required.

Objectives

You will learn to:

  1. Explain the fundamentals of seismic wave propagation and factors affecting resolution at the reservoir level.
  2. Calibrate seismic data using well data.
  3. Communicate effectively with data acquisition and processing specialists.
  4. Execute an effective interpretation workflow for a 2-D seismic project.
  5. Apply interpretation fundamentals to design a 3-D workflow on a workstation.
  6. Utilize multiple offset volumes to perform reconnaissance AVO analysis.
  7. Apply basic seismic sequence stratigraphic interpretation principles.
  8. Perform time-to-depth conversions using simplified velocity models.
  9. Utilize common seismic attributes to characterize reservoirs.
  10. Generate volumetric estimates of recoverable reserves (EUR).

Level and Audience

Fundamental. Intended for early career geoscientists and for technical support staff who work with seismic data.

Duration and Logistics

Classroom version: 6 days; a mix of lectures (65%) and hands-on exercises (35%). The course will be scheduled over two consecutive weeks to suit the client. The manual will be provided in digital format and participants will be required to bring a laptop or tablet computer to follow the lectures. Exercises are built around a publicly available dataset and comprise a ‘red thread’ that runs through the class.

Course Content

Workflow training begins with the calibration of seismic data, the establishment of correlation loops and structural contouring. More advanced workflows, including depth conversion and the practical application of AVO using multiple offset volumes in the interpretation process, will be demonstrated. Direct hydrocarbon indicators and basic principles of seismic sequence stratigraphy will also be discussed during the lectures and exercise sessions.

Daily Agenda

Day 1

Introduction

  • What is seismic data? What can it do? What are its limitations?
    • Introduction to seismic wave propagation and elastic behavior of rocks
    • How is seismic data recorded?
    • What is required to generate useful subsurface images?
    • What can go wrong?
    • The interpreter’s role in working with acquisition and processing specialists
  • Reservoir responses to seismic waves
  • Seismic resolution
  • Seismic reflectivity (Exercise 1.1)
  • Synthetic seismograms
  • Interpretation workflow (Exercises 2.1, 2.2, 2.3)
    • Understanding the basin
    • Calibration
    • Tying correlation loops

Day 2

  • Seismic acquisition
  • Data processing (Exercises 1.2, 1.3)
  • Seismic imaging (migration)
  • Project management & data loading
  • Reflectivity changes with angle – AVO
  • Elastic reflectivity response
  • Seismic amplitude case histories (Exercise 1.4)

Day 3

  • Structural Interpretation workflow (Exercises 2.4, 2.5, 2.6)
    • Mapping lineaments
    • Using time slices
    • Mapping the interpretation
  • Seismic inversion methods
  • Introduction to Quantitative Interpretation
  • Quiz – Waves, reflectivity, inversion, acquisition, processing

Day 4

  • Review day 3 quiz topics
  • Review interpretation exercises 2.1– 2.4
  • Team presentations of mapping exercises 2.5 & 2.6
  • Using flattened seismic images (workflow)
  • Introduction to seismic sequence stratigraphy
  • Stratigraphic interpretation (exercise)
  • Pore pressure estimation

Day 5

  • Seismic velocity measurements
  • Vertical seismic Profiles (VSPs)
  • Velocity interpretation, exercise 2.7
  • Workflow options for time/depth conversion
  • Interpretation workflows on a workstation
  • Seismic attribute applications (including AVO)
  • Estimation of recoverable reserves in a reservoir (EUR)

Day 6

  • Fractured reservoirs
  • Distributed acoustic sensing (DAS) 4D
  • Reservoir surveillance
  • Cross borehole tomography in horizontal wells
  • Characterization of shale reservoirs
  • Case history discussions
  • CO2 injection monitoring
  • Geothermal reservoirs

Wrap-up discussion

List of exercises

  • Seismic Well Tie Exercise: Using synthetic seismograms or VSPs.
  • Interpretation Exercise: Constructing an interpretation baseline for a project.
  • Interpretation Exercise: Tying interpretation loops for multiple horizons.
  • Interpretation Exercise: Constructing a lineament map to guide the interpretation.
  • Interpretation Exercise: Generating a structure map.
  • Interpretation Exercise: Construction and use of isochron maps.
  • Interpretation Exercise: Using 3-D time slices to validate an interpretation.
  • Interpretation Exercise: Using time slices to validate an interpretation.
  • Interpretation Exercise: Use of direct H/C indicators to estimate reservoir size.

Essential Data Science for Subsurface Geoscientists and Engineers (G065)

Tutor(s)

David Psaila: Analytic Signal Limited

Overview

Interest in data science and machine learning is rapidly expanding, offering the promise of increased efficiency in E&P, and holding the potential to analyse and extract value from vast amounts of under-utilised legacy data. Combined with petroleum geoscience and engineering domain knowledge, the key elements underlying the successful application of the technology are: data, code, and algorithms. This course builds on public datasets, code examples written in Python, statistical graphics, and algorithms from popular data science packages to provide a practical introduction to the subject and its application in the E&P domain.

Duration and Logistics

Classroom version: 5 days consisting of lectures and computer-based exercises and practicals.

Virtual version: Ten, 3-hour online sessions presented over 5 days. The course is at an introductory level and all subject matter will be taught from scratch. No prior experience of statistics, Python coding or machine learning is required, although some basic college level knowledge of maths and statistics is useful. Hands-on computer workshops form a significant part of this course, and participants must come equipped with a laptop computer running Windows (8, 10, 11) or MacOS (10.10 or above) with sufficient free storage (4 Gb). Detailed installation instructions are provided in advance so that participants can set up their computer with the data science toolkit and course materials before the course starts.

Level and Audience

Fundamental. This is an introductory course for reservoir geologists, reservoir geophysicists, reservoir engineers, data management, and technical staff who want to learn the key concepts of data science.

Objectives

You will learn to:

  1. Analyse project data using the data science toolkit; notebooks, visualization, and communication.
  2. Perform data import and manipulation, data visualization, exploratory data analysis, and building predictive models from data.
  3. Have a working knowledge of coding in Python.
  4. Coordinate reference systems including geographic and projected coordinate systems.
  5. Use the fundamentals of machine learning including background concepts, the different types of machine learning, and the basic workflow to build and evaluate models from data.

Course Content

The course comprises a mix of lectures and hands-on computer workshops. You’ll gain a working knowledge of coding in Python. You’ll learn the tradecraft of data import and manipulation, data visualization, exploratory data analysis, and building predictive models from data. You’ll also gain a powerful working environment for data science on your own computer, which together with code examples provided by the course will give you a jump start to applying the techniques you’ll learn to your own projects. For a flavour of what you’ll learn, check out this gallery of visualization samples https://www.analyticsignal.com/visualization/index.html drawn from the course workshops.

What data sources are used?
Using real E&P data sources is an important element of the hands-on computer workshops. This course makes extensive use of open data provided the UK Oil and Gas Authority and the UK National Data Repository. These data sources are not only typical of the challenges and complexity presented by E&P datasets, but also contain sufficient data quality issues to make them ideal for teaching the all important skills of data cleaning and manipulation. The course makes use of well logs, tops, seismic, and production data from these sources. The data are released in the public domain and you can continue to use these sources as you gain in experience after the course.

What data science tools are used?
The course introduces a data science toolkit based on Visual Studio Code from Microsoft. This free product is rapidly growing in popularity as an environment for Python coding and data science. We think this toolkit provides a best-in-class environment for learning data science and subsequently moving to work on real projects, and we provide a free extension to further enhance its data science capabilities. The toolkit components will be installed on your computer – the advantage of this approach over cloud-based platforms is that your data is never uploaded to the cloud (if security is an issue), and you will be able to continue working when offline (if internet access is an issue).

Day 1
Module 1. Overview

  • What is Data Science – Overview of the course, and an outline of the scope of data science.
  • Data Science for E&P – Addressing the role of data science in E&P and an example application to log data quality control and reconstruction using machine learning.

Module 2. Data Science Toolkit – Notebooks, Visualization, and Communication

  • Overview of the data science toolkit.
  • Hands-on workshop introducing the toolkit and getting started with Python scripts and notebooks.
  • Overview of how to manage and use Python packages.
  • Hands-on workshop on Python packages covering how to install and manage packages, and how to use packages from your Python notebooks.
  • Introduction to data visualization with SandDance.
  • Hands-on workshop introducing SandDance for interactive data visualization using a dataset of offshore wells from the UK Continental Shelf.
  • Overview of Markdown, a lightweight markup language for adding simple formatting to plain text documents, and documenting Python notebooks.
  • Hands-on workshop on Markdown for formatting text documents and annotating Python notebooks.

Day 2
Module 3. Python Fundamentals

  • Python 101 – Introduction to Python fundamentals including variables, types, statements, expressions, control flow, and functions.
  • Hands-on workshop on Python 101.
  • Python 102 – More Python fundamentals including modules, files and folders, data structures, and data frames.
  • Hands-on workshop on Python 102.

Day 3
Module 4. Computational Thinking

  • Introduction to Computational Thinking – the analytical and logical processes of decomposing a complex task and expressing it in a form that can be performed by a computer.
  • Hands-on workshop on Computational Thinking applied to the design and implementation an interactive base map for UK E&P data.

Module 5. Exploratory Data Analysis

  • Exploratory Data Analysis – Introduction to the Exploratory Data Analysis process and key Python packages for data analysis and statistical graphics.
  • Hands-on workshop on exploratory data analysis of daily production data from the Vulcan gas field in the UK Southern North Sea – reading data, handling dates, cleaning values, resampling, merging datasets, creating statistical graphics, exporting results.
  • Statistical Graphics – Why visualization is so important. Introduction to the Plotly package for statistical graphics. A classification of statistical graphics. Demonstration of a gallery of statistical graphics samples.
  • Hands-on workshop on statistical graphics – using the Plotly Express package to create a gallery of statistical graphics samples. Code snippets (small blocks of reusable code) help make exploratory data analysis more fun by accelerating the journey from raw data files to working graphics.
  • Descriptive Statistics – Introduction to univariate and multivariate statistics.

Day 4
Module 6. Exploring E&P Data

  • Well header data – Introduction to handling well header data (surface location and attributes) using the pandas and plotly packages.
  • Hands-on workshop on well header data – including import, data cleaning, date handling, posting well data on cultural/satellite base map and visualizing historical trends.
  • Production data – Introduction to handling field production data using the pandas and plotly packages.
  • Hands-on workshop on field production data – including import, data cleaning, date handling, queries, visualizing hierarchical and time series data.
  • Well log data – Introduction to handling wireline logs from LAS files using the lasio, pandas, and plotly packages.
  • Hands-on workshop on well log and tops data – including LAS file import, merging tops, and data visualization.
  • Seismic data – Introduction to handling seismic SEG-Y data using the segyio, and plotly packages.
  • Hands-on workshop on seismic data – including SEG-Y file import, extracting binary and trace headers, visualizing seismic trace data, and calculating seismic attributes.

Day 5
Module 7. Geospatial Data

  • Coordinate reference systems – Introduction to geographic and projected coordinate systems, defining a coordinate reference system from EPSG codes, offsets between coordinate reference systems, and transforming positions between reference systems.
  • Hands-on workshop on coordinate reference systems – how to define a coordinate reference system and transform positions using the pyproj package.

Module 8. Machine Learning Fundamentals

  • Machine Learning – introduction to the fundamentals of machine learning including background concepts, the different types of machine learning, and the basic workflow to build and evaluate models from data.
  • Supervised learning with regression – introduction to regression including random forest regression and performance evaluation.
  • Hands-on workshop on regression for reconstructing wireline logs.
  • Unsupervised Learning – introduction to unsupervised learning for dimensionality reduction, clustering and outlier detection.
  • Hands-on workshop on dimensionality reduction for wireline logs.
  • Explainable Machine Learning – introduction to explainable machine learning: techniques for looking inside the so-called black box models of machine learning to understand why particular predictions are made and which variables are important.

An Introduction to Sequence Stratigraphy (G068)

Tutor(s)

Gary Hampson: Imperial College London

Overview

Sequence stratigraphy is a key tool for subsurface interpretation of depositional systems and thereby predicting the distribution of reservoir, source rock and seal lithologies. The course will introduce the principles and methods of sequence stratigraphy, with a focus on continental, shallow-marine and deep-marine depositional settings. Participants will apply these principles and methods via the sequence stratigraphic interpretation of subsurface data (e.g. seismic, well-log, core, reservoir production data).

Duration and Logistics

Classroom version: 2 days including a mix of lectures and exercises. The course manual will be provided in digital format and participants will be required to bring along a laptop or tablet to follow the lectures and exercises.

Online version: Three 3.5-hour interactive online sessions presented over 3 days (afternoons in Europe and mornings in North America). A digital manual will be distributed to participants before the course.

Level and Audience

Fundamental. This course is designed for junior geoscientists working on a variety of subsurface energy projects who want to gain a basic understanding of sequence stratigraphy and its applications to subsurface data sets. Participants should have knowledge of basic sedimentology and subsurface geology.

Objectives

You will learn to:

  1. Understand the basic terminology of sequence stratigraphy.
  2. Describe the key surfaces and systems tracts.
  3. Appreciate the main components of depositional sequences in continental, shallow-marine and deep-marine systems.
  4. Evaluate a range of subsurface data in terms of sequence stratigraphic methods and models.

Course Content

Session 1: Key concepts and terminology

  • Introduction to stratigraphy
  • Lithostratigraphy and chronostratigraphy
  • Sequence stratigraphy controls and concepts
    • Accommodation / Relative sea level
    • Sediment supply
    • Regression vs. transgression
  • Sequence stratigraphy terminology
    • Key definitions
    • Formation of parasequences
    • Transgressive surfaces
    • Parasequence stacking patterns
    • Forced regressions
    • Incised valleys
    • Sequence boundaries
    • Interfluves
    • Shoreline trajectory
  • Exercise on identifying stratal patterns and key surfaces

Session 2: Exploration-scale applications

  • Depositional sequences
  • Seismic analysis
  • Well-log analysis
  • Application to exploration plays
  • Exercise on passive-margin exploration plays

Session 3: Reservoir-scale applications

  • Application to shallow-marine reservoirs
  • Exercise on continental and shallow-marine reservoirs
  • Application to deep-marine reservoirs
  • Exercise on deep-marine reservoirs

Introduction to Clastic Facies (G073)

Tutor(s)

Howard Feldman: Consulting Geologist and Affiliate faculty, Colorado State University

Overview

This course provides an introduction to siliciclastic facies in all aqueous settings, focusing on sand deposition for application to conventional reservoirs. The course begins with an overview of sedimentary structures and their recognition in outcrop and core. Observations of sedimentary structures and facies stacking patterns are then used to interpret depositional environments and make predictions about sand body geometry, size, and compartmentalization. The course makes extensive use of large-format (50% scale) core photos and outcrop photopans from a wide range of environments. Subsurface data sets, including seismic and well logs, are used to illustrate the application of these concepts to subsurface mapping. We will also cover an introduction to core description workflows.

Objectives

You will learn to:

  1. Interpret basic depositional models of siliciclastic systems with a focus on sandy facies, and prediction away from control at a range of scales.
  2. Collect basic observations from core that can be used to constrain depositional models.
  3. Integrate cores, well logs and seismic, in order to make predictions about the distribution of reservoir, source and seal.
  4. Interpret genetic stratigraphic units in core, well logs and seismic.

Level and Audience

Fundamental. The course is intended for subsurface geoscientists who would like an introduction to siliciclastic facies and their interpretation from core, well logs and seismic. There is no assumption of previous knowledge of clastic systems, and simple concepts are built up into sophisticated depositional models. Skills are built through a series of exercises using outcrop photopans, high-resolution core photos, well logs and seismic. There is abundant opportunity for interaction.

Duration and Logistics

Classroom: A 2-day course comprising a mix of lectures and exercises. The manual will be provided in digital format and participants will be required to bring a laptop or tablet computer to follow the lectures and exercises.

Virtual session: Four 3-hour interactive online sessions presented over 4 days (mornings in North America and afternoons in Europe). Digital course notes and exercise materials will be distributed to participants before the course.

Course Content

Session 1: Fluvial systems

  • Reynolds numbers and how they relate to bedforms
  • Recognition of sedimentary structures in core
  • How to utilize sedimentary structures and burrows to constrain depositional conditions
  • Fluvial depositional models (meandering, braided and fixed rivers)
  • Large-scale fluvial systems (alluvial fans, distributive fluvial systems, tributary systems)
  • Paleosols and how to use them

Session 2: Coastal systems

  • Introduction to coastal parasequences, the fundamental genetic unit of prograding clastic shoreline
  • Wave-dominated coasts (barrier islands, strand plains, wave-dominated deltas)
  • River-dominated deltas
  • Tide-dominated deltas and tidal recognition criteria

Session 3: Incised valley fills – Deepwater fans part 1

  • Incised valley facies models
  • Sediment gravity flows (slumps, debris flows, turbidity currents)
  • MTCs
  • Deepwater channels and levees

Session 4: Deepwater fans part 2

  • Avulsions
  • Lobes
  • Passive margin fans
  • Active margin fans
  • Drift deposits

Quality Control of Land Seismic Processing (G079)

Tutor(s)

Robert Hardy: Chief Geophysicist, Tonnta Energy Limited

Overview

This course will provide participants with fundamentals needed to liaise with specialists and discuss workflows and quality control for land seismic data processing. Using modern case histories and basic theory, the course covers fundamentals, established workflows and advanced technology. Demonstrations will use interactive processing tools to improve the students’ understanding of the latest techniques and how to quality control effectively and efficiently to meet their objectives.

Objectives

You will learn to:

  1. Discuss the most common land seismic acquisition and processing techniques used in seismic exploration and production and become more proficient in the terminology used to describe them.
  2. Recognise seismic processing parameter selection for specific objectives such as amplitude interpretation for exploration and reservoir characterisation.
  3. Discuss quality control of land seismic processing workflows covering data preparation, parameterisation, noise & multiple suppression, velocity model building, imaging and post-migration processing.
  4. Become aware of newer acquisition and processing techniques alongside their potential benefits & pitfalls.

Level and Audience

Fundamental. This course is aimed towards geoscientists seeking fundamentals of land seismic processing methods and those who wish to more effectively liaise with specialists and apply quality control. We start from first principals, but it is helpful if participants have a basic knowledge of land seismic acquisition and processing terminology and are actively working with seismic data.

Duration and Logistics

Classroom: A 2-day course comprising a mix of lectures and case studies. The manual will be provided in digital format and participants will be required to bring a laptop or tablet computer to follow the lectures and exercises.

Virtual version: Four 3-hour interactive online sessions presented over 4 days comprising lectures, discussion and demonstrations using case histories to illustrate the basic theory and impact of the techniques discussed. A digital manual and exercise materials will be distributed to participants before the course. Some reading and several exercises can be completed by participants off-line.

Course Content

Session 1: Land Seismic Processing Workflow

  • Seismic refresher including a brief overview of basic wave theory, noise suppression, velocity analysis and QC, stacking, imaging and resolution.
  • Basic techniques such as frequency analysis, convolution, sampling, aliasing, interpolation and regularization.
  • Quality control of data conditioning techniques including surface consistent deconvolution, trace scaling, automatic gain control, frequency filtering.

Session 2: Survey Design basics to optimize resolution, denoise and imaging

  • Current seismic acquisition trends.
  • Quality control of formats, geometry and amplitude corrections.
  • Noise: types, suppression and quality control for land seismic data.
  • FK, FX, radon, tau-p analysis: examples, pitfalls and quality control.

Session 3: Imaging and Earth Model Workflow

  • Basic migration, prestack time migration and gather generation.
  • Correcting for velocity variation and complex sub-surface: Prestack depth Migration and full waveform inversion (FWI).
  • Statics: elevation, refraction, tomographic and reflection based residual statics are compared using a series of synthetic and recent real case histories to emphasis quality control rules of thumb.
  • Tomography techniques and role of interpreter in anisotropic velocity model building and quality control featuring recent land case histories.

Session 4: Post-Migration Data Enhancement and Introduction to Specialised Processing

  • Case histories featuring post-migration data enhancement, 3D survey merging and gather conditioning for future AVO analysis and inversion.
  • Specialised processing: Multicomponent, Elastic and 4D concepts
  • Summary of quality control stages, tools leading to better and more reliable data quality.

Additional Topics and Material:

The following additional sections are included online but not discussed in detail during the class:

  • Seismic data formats: seismic and navigation formats and quality control.
  • Workstation Data loading: including common pitfalls.
  • Processing tenders overview.

Onshore Seismic Processing and Imaging (G081)

Tutor(s)

Ron Kerr, Independent seismic processing QC consultant and David Kessler, President of SeismicCity.

Overview

This course will introduce the fundamentals of land seismic acquisition including receiver types and their spectrum indication. Land-based seismic data presents unique challenges, and the course will subsequently follow the processes after acquisition to include all the main processing steps of a modern land 3D dataset.

Duration and Logistics

Fundamental. Intended for geoscientists who work with seismic data and are also required to understand land seismic acquisition and processing projects and work with imaging professionals.

Objectives

You will learn to:

  1. List common onshore seismic source and receiver types and their spectrum indication.
  2. Describe source/receiver line spacing & intervals and their relationship to acquisition footprints and seismic resolution.
  3. Have a clear picture of main processing steps affecting phase and amplitude and understand the concepts of surface-consistency.
  4. Explain in plain language how FWI works and the key factors to velocity model building.
  5. List the types of data used in data processing.
  6. Identify the main components of the seismic wavefield and what they are used for.
  7. Describe the main collections/domains for manipulating seismic data.
  8. Explain the main steps in a processing sequence.
  9. List the main types of noise and describe attenuation methods for these.
  10. Describe the various velocities used in seismic and how to access them.
  11. Identify multiples and explain methods to attenuate them.
  12. Discuss the need for regularization.
  13. Describe the migration process and list the difference between Time/Depth Migrations.

Level and Audience

Classroom version: A 2-day classroom course day including a mix of lectures and exercises. The manual will be provided in digital format and participants will be required to bring a laptop or tablet computer to follow the lectures and exercises.

Virtual version: Four 3.5-hour interactive online sessions presented over four days (mornings in North America and afternoons in Europe). Digital course notes and exercise materials will be distributed to participants before the course. Some exercises may be completed by participants off-line.

A 2-day classroom course day including a mix of lectures and exercises. The manual will be provided in digital format and participants will be required to bring a laptop or tablet computer to follow the lectures and exercises.

Virtual version: Four 3.5-hour interactive online sessions presented over four days (mornings in North America and afternoons in Europe). Digital course notes and exercise materials will be distributed to participants before the course. Some exercises may be completed by participants off-line.

Course Content

Session 1: Onshore seismic data acquisition and processing

We will start with the basics and fundamentals of land seismic acquisition and an overview of basic seismic terms. Common onshore seismic source and receiver types and their spectrum indication will be presented.

We will provide a clear picture of main processing steps affecting phase and amplitude and understand the concepts of surface-consistency. These steps include explanation of all the terms you may have heard of but might not be entirely familiar in understanding including refraction statics, denoise, deconvolution, velocities, and 5D interpolation, as well as many steps that are not as well-known such as: geophone compensation, geometry qc, and residual statics. The main types of noise will be shown and we will describe attenuation methods.

The various data types used in data processing will be presented. Reviewing the main steps included in a processing sequence, data examples will be used. This includes data regularization. The examples include simplified graphics and real-data examples. This behind-the-scenes look is important; decisions made during pre-processing can affect any prospect. You will learn why these steps are run and what to look for when a vendor is processing your land dataset. No math is required.

Session 2: Seismic wave propagation, migration, velocities, anisotropy and model building

We will start this session by reviewing seismic wave propagation in Elastic media. Seismic forward modeling describes wave propagation in the sub-surface is inherent in processing. We will identify the main components of the seismic wavefield and what they are used for.

Using both wave and ray equations, we move to discuss how these equations are used for application of depth migration. We will describe how ray based and wave-based migrations work and will explain the differences between RTM based on the acoustic wave equation and the elastic wave equation. The difference between Time and Depth Migration will be explained.

Next, we will cover the foundations and use of velocity estimation techniques and will analyze the advantages and limitations of each. We will describe the various velocities used in seismic imaging and how to they are constructed from the seismic data. We will demonstrate ray-based reflection tomography as well as wave based Full Waveform Inversion (FWI). Special attention will be given to describe how each method is used in velocity model building.

We will then review anisotropy used in seismic processing and imaging. A complete workflow including all steps used in model building and depth imaging project will be provided.

 

Geological Controls on Production in Unconventional Reservoirs (G052)

Tutor(s)

Bruce Hart: Department of Earth Sciences, Western University

Overview

This course classifies unconventional reservoirs from a petroleum systems perspective and leads participants through how depositional controls on reservoir architecture and mechanical stratigraphy affect development strategies.

Duration and Logistics

Classroom version: 3 days; a mix of lectures exercises. The manual will be provided in digital format and participants will be required to bring a laptop or tablet computer to follow the lectures and exercises.

Virtual version: Four 4-hour interactive online sessions presented over 4 days (morning sessions in North America, afternoon sessions in Europe). A digital manual and exercise materials will be distributed to participants before the course.

Level and Audience

Fundamental. Intended for subsurface professionals (geologists, geochemists, geophysicists, reservoir-, completion- and drilling engineers) who have some working knowledge of unconventional reservoirs but are looking to understand how multi-disciplinary integration can improve exploration and development decisions.

Objectives

You will learn to:

  1. Describe unconventional reservoirs based on all parts of their petroleum system’s character, and use that knowledge in a predictive way at all steps from exploration to development
  2. Maximize the benefit of common tools for unconventional reservoir characterization.
  3. Define stratigraphic and structural controls on development strategies: landing-zone definition, horizontal vs vertical wells
  4. Develop a common language that can be used to facilitate information exchange between various engineering and geoscience subdisciplines.

Course Content

This course classifies unconventional reservoirs from a petroleum systems perspective and leads participants through hands-on exercises (data from the Eagle Ford, Bakken, San Juan Basin and elsewhere) that reinforce the concepts of depositional controls on reservoir architecture and fractures.

The term “unconventional reservoirs” encompasses a wide range of reservoir types: tight-gas sandstones, naturally fractured reservoirs, source-rock (“shale”) plays, etc. The

common bond is that the reservoirs have permeabilities measured in the nano- to microDarcy range and require hydraulic fracturing and/or horizontal drilling for production to be economic. These reservoirs develop in a variety of different petroleum systems. In some, e.g., tight-oil sandstones, the source rock and reservoir are separate. In other cases, e.g., source-rock reservoirs, the source- and reservoir rocks are the same. Because of these and other genetic differences, exploration and development strategies need to be tailored to optimize economic return.

Goals of the course include:

  • Examine how a genetic classification of unconventional reservoirs, using concepts from petroleum systems analyses, can guide decision making from exploration to development stages of a play.
  • Illustrate how depositional controls on reservoir architecture and mechanical stratigraphy affect development strategies: the choice of horizontal vs vertical wells, landing zone definition, frack barrier identification, etc.
  • Characterize the positive and negative effects of natural fractures and faults and means for their identification.
  • Examine how to maximize the benefit of common tools (triple combo logs, core analyses, etc.) for identifying the potential of unconventional reservoirs.

Introduction

  • Petroleum systems to completion design: the wholistic view
  • What are petroleum systems?
  • Conventional vs unconventional plays (petroleum systems perspective)
  • Unconventional play types
  • Pressure systems
  • Horizontal drilling, hydraulic fracturing and factory drilling

Source-Rock Reservoirs (“Shale Plays”)

  • Petroleum systems characterization of source-rock reservoirs
  • Source-rock characterization
  • Mineralogy and mechanical properties of source-rock reservoirs
  • Pore systems and reservoir quality
  • Eagle Ford case study & exercise

Tight-Oil Reservoirs

  • Petroleum systems characterization of tight-oil reservoirs
  • Shaley sandstones: petrophysical evaluation, pore-system characterization
  • Bakken and Cardium case studies and exercises

Naturally Fractured Reservoirs

  • Petroleum systems characterization of naturally fractured reservoirs
  • Fracture characterization
  • Fractures and fluid flow
  • Drilling naturally fractured reservoirs
  • Mesaverde Group (San Juan and Piceance Basin) case studies and exercises

Synthesis

  • Beginning with the end in mind: Thinking “development” during exploration
  • The Unconventional-Conventional Spectrum: hybrids, haloes & headaches
  • Stratigraphic controls on unconventional reservoir potential
  • Structural controls on unconventional reservoir potential
  • Full integration, from start to finish

Key Concepts in Clastic Reservoir Performance (G044)

Tutor(s)

Mike Boyles: Retired Shell Oil and Affiliate Faculty, Colorado School of Mines

Overview

This course presents the concepts and terms used to describe the sedimentology, stratigraphy and structure of clastic units, and introduces the environments of deposition of clastic sediments. The awareness of these topics and their heterogeneities allows participants to understand their role in predicting reservoir performance in exploration projects, in development planning and in managing field performance.

This course presents a stand-alone overview of clastic reservoirs and would be beneficial for any subsurface team member. It also serves to provide the framework for the geologic concepts that are examined in Clastic Reservoirs Field Seminar: Stratigraphic and Structural Heterogeneities That Impact Exploration and Production Reservoir Performance (G012). Attending G044 will allow G012 participants to maximize the benefit of spending time in the field. For a more detailed approach to the subject in the classroom, consider the 5-day Introduction to Clastic Reservoirs: Stratigraphic and Structural Heterogeneities That Impact Performance (G047).

Duration and Logistics

Classroom version: A 1-day classroom course comprising a mix of lectures (75%) and hands-on exercises (25%). The manual will be provided in digital format and participants will be required to bring a laptop or tablet computer to follow the lectures and exercises.

Virtual version: Two 4-hour interactive online sessions presented over 2 days (mornings in North America and afternoons in Europe). A digital manual and exercise materials will be distributed to participants before the course. Some reading and an exercise are to be completed by participants off-line.

Level and Audience

Fundamental. This is a refresher course for geoscientists and an overview of geologic basics for reservoir engineers, petrophysicists, managers and support staff.

Objectives

You will learn to:

  1. Understand the basic terminology of sedimentology, stratigraphy and sequence stratigraphy.
  2. Describe key characteristics of eolian, coastal plain, delta and deepwater reservoirs.
  3. Understand how subsurface reservoirs can be divided into flow units that capture key reservoir flow characteristics.
  4. Describe heterogeneities that can impact flow unit properties.
  5. Understand how sequence stratigraphic concepts are applied in a practical and predictive way.

Course Content

  1. Basic tools used in subsurface interpretation
    • Sedimentology
    • Stratigraphy
    • Sequence stratigraphy
  2. Introduction to clastic facies
    • Eolian
    • Coastal plain
    • Deltas
    • Turbidites
  3. Structural Heterogeneities