World-class training for the modern energy industry

CCS Reservoir Geology at Outcrop: Rotliegend and Bunter/Sherwood Sandstones, Cumbria and NW Cheshire (E578)

Tutor(s)

Richard Worden: Professor in the Department of Earth Ocean and Ecological Sciences, University of Liverpool, UK

Overview

This course is intended to give subsurface teams the opportunity to see some of the rocks at outcrop that they are planning to use as CO2 storage sites. Visiting these outcrops will allow subsurface teams, who generally use logs and limited core to build models, the opportunity to see the larger and smaller scale architecture of the rocks they are working on. We will also discuss post-depositional changes to their sandstones, including petrophysical and geomechanical property evolution (pre- and post-CO2 injection), and some of the risks associated with developing saline aquifers and depleted gas fields as CO2 storage sites in these sandstones.

Duration and Logistics

A 5-day field course comprising a mix of field activities in NW England (Cumbria, Cheshire and Merseyside) with classroom lecture sessions and discussions.

Exertion Level

This class requires a MODERATE exertion level. Field locations are mainly relatively easy walks from road access points, although there may be some scrambling over coastal boulders and walking down and up tide-dependent coastal access paths.

Level and Audience

Intermediate. This course is intended for geoscience and engineering professionals working in CCS projects, especially those with an active interest in the Permian Rotliegend and Triassic Bunter/Sherwood Sandstones.

Objectives

You will learn to:

  1. Characterize the main depositional features that influence Permian Sandstone (Rotliegend) reservoir properties and CCS reservoir development and likely performance.
  2. Assess the main diagenetic features that influence Permian Sandstone (Rotliegend) reservoir properties and CCS reservoir development and likely performance.
  3. Appraise the main depositional features that influence Triassic Sandstone (Bunter/Sherwood) reservoir properties and CCS reservoir development and likely performance.
  4. Examine the main diagenetic features that influence Triassic Sandstone (Bunter/Sherwood) reservoir properties and CCS reservoir development and likely performance.
  5. Evaluate the role of depositional and diagenetic processes in influencing top-seal caprock performance in CCS reservoirs.

Course Content

The course will incorporate field visits to East and West Cumbria (Vale of Eden and St Bees Head) and NW Cheshire/Merseyside (Hilbre, Thursaston, Helsby, Beeston, Daresbury). There will also be formal classroom presentations about what the class has seen/will see and its relevance to Permian (Rotliegend) and Triassic (Sherwood and Bunter) CCS reservoir, with consideration and possible visits to overlying mudstone caprocks (Permian: St Bees Shale/Zechstein; Triassic: Mercia Mudsone/Haisborough Gp).

Itinerary (tbc based on availability of sites)

Day 1

  • Arrive at Armathwaite (Vale of Eden hotel if available)
  • Evening presentations on the outcrop (field) and subsurface geology of the Lower Permian sandstones (Rotliegend equivalent)

Day 2
Field visits: Vale of Eden

  • Travel to Ravenglass (Pennington hotel if available)
  • Evening presentations on the outcrop (field) and subsurface geology of the Upper Permian and the Lower part of the Sherwood Sandstones (Bunter equivalent)

Day 3
Field visits: Ravenglass and north of St Bees Head (highly tide dependent access to coastal outcrops)

  • Travel to North Cheshire (North Cheshire Hotel if available)

Day 4
Field visits: Upper Sherwood Sandstone, possibly at Hilbre, West Kirby or similar (Ormskirk Fm, equivalent of Upper Bunter)

  • Travel to Liverpool/Wirral and North Cheshire
  • Possible evening presentation on geology of depleted gas fields and saline aquifers in Triassic sandstones

Day 5
Field visits: Upper Sherwood Sandstone and possibly lowermost Mercia Mudstone Group in NW England, outcrops at Helsby, Beeston, Daresbury or even Altrincham

  • Check out of Chester hotel
  • Course concludes

 

Building a Reservoir Model, Pembrokeshire, UK (G055)

Tutor(s)

Mark Bentley: TRACS International and Langdale Geoscience.

Overview

This course offers a software-independent view on the process of reservoir model design and simulation model-building, addresses the underlying reasons why some models disappoint and offers solutions that support the building of more efficient, fit-for-purpose models. The thread through the week is a model design for the notional ‘Pembroke Field’ – a synthetic field constructed from reservoir analogue outcrops in South Pembrokeshire.  The Pembroke Field contains three contrasting reservoir types: continental clastics, shallow marine deltaics and naturally fractured carbonates, in both structurally deformed and undeformed settings. Data from producing oil and gas fields has been scaled to the synthetic models to create a realistic hydrocarbon field accumulation, ready for development.

Objectives

You will learn to:

  1. Create a fluid-sensitive conceptual model for a heterogeneous reservoir, built from a selection of elements and placed in a realistic architectural framework: the “sketch”.
  2. Guide the use of geostatistical tools intuitively, balancing deterministic and probabilistic components with awareness of the limits of the tools.
  3. Select appropriate methods for modeling of matrix properties, including the handling of net (cut-off’s vs total property modeling).
  4. Evaluate options for multi-scale modelling and the possible need for multi-scale approaches based on hierarchical understanding of Representative Elementary Volumes (REV).
  5. Understand issues surrounding permeability modeling and why this differs from the handling of other properties.
  6. Learn a rule of thumb (“Flora’s rule”) to help assess what level of static model detail matters to flow modeling and forecasting.
  7. Review how to use well test analysis to constrain models.
  8. Review options for model-based uncertainty handling (base case led, multi-deterministic scenarios, multi-stochastic ensembles), learn how to post-process the results and how to select an appropriate workflow which minimizes impact of behavioral bias.

Exertion Level

This class requires an EASY exertion level. Field stops require short walks along coastal paths, beaches and wave cut platforms. The longest walk is <5km (3 miles). Field stops are all at approximately sea level and some are tide dependent. Transport will be by coach.This class requires an EASY exertion level. Field stops require short walks along coastal paths, beaches and wave cut platforms. The longest walk is <5km (3 miles). Field stops are all at approximately sea level and some are tide dependent. Transport will be by coach.

Level and Audience

Intermediate. The course is aimed at geoscientists with knowledge of reservoir modeling software, petrophysicists who provide input to static reservoir models and reservoir engineers involved in simulation work who deal with the static-dynamic interface on a regular basis. The course is also of benefit to team leaders who wish to have a deeper understanding of the principles behind modeling and how to QC models made by others.

Duration and Logistics

5 days; a mix of field work (70%), and classroom exercises (30%).

Course Content

The central theme of the course is Reservoir Model Design, on the premise that it is design rather than software knowledge that typically distinguishes “good models” from “bad models”. Considerable time is dedicated to reservoir model and simulation exercises in many companies but the results often disappoint: the time taken to build models is often too long, the models too detailed and cumbersome and the final model is ultimately not fit-for-purpose. This course examines the reasons why and offers remedies to fix these problems.

Modelling and simulation software is not run live on the event – the emphasis is on good design. However, models and simulations of the Pembroke Field have been built at a number of scales and will be shown to quantify the impact of the observed field heterogeneities on fluid flow.

The course is organized around the following five themes, issues within which are often the cause of poor model outcome:

Model purpose
What is the question we are specifically trying to address? What do we really mean when we say “fit for purpose”?

Elements and architecture
How much detail should be incorporated into the models? From the rich spectrum of potential lithofacies, electrofacies, biostratigraphic and analogue data inputs, how do we select the “right” number of components (elements) to take forward into the modeling process? Once selected, how do these elements combine into a realistic description of length scales and reservoir architecture? How to capture this in an interpretative sketch that can be used as a cross-discipline communication tool.

Probability and determinism
Is the balance of probabilistic and deterministic components appropriate given the model purpose? Should heterogeneities be handled implicitly or explicitly in the static and dynamic models and if implicitly, then how should we average their properties? What are our expectations of geostatistics and how do we control the algorithms intuitively to replicate a sketched reservoir concept? This applies both to modeling of the matrix and also fractures, and we explore how we can use well test data to place deterministic constraints on our models.

Multi-scale modeling
What scale should we be modeling and simulating at, given the fluid type and model purpose? Can everything be modeled at one scale, or are static/dynamic multi-scale models required? We address the full spectrum of heterogeneity using the concept of Representative Elementary Volumes and conclude that traditional static-dynamic upscaling is only part of the story and not always the main part. Illustrations of fine-scale “Truth” models will be used to illustrate where we sometimes go wrong when we over-simplify a design.

Model-based uncertainty-handling
How to really go wrong. What are the tools we can use to identify natural bias (heuristics) in the modeling process and select workflows that capture useful ranges in a practical way, minimizing bias in the process. We summarize the current range of stochastically and deterministically led options, including the current trend towards “ensemble” modeling and the use of machine learning and AI. We discuss which techniques are appropriate to use and when, and how to post-process the results and communicate them usefully to colleagues.

Itinerary

Day 0
Arrival. Evening course introduction and safety briefing
Overnight Saundersfoot

Day 1
Model purpose, elements and architecture
Fieldwork: Amroth, incised valley fill, delta front and delta plain depositional systems
Overnight Saundersfoot

Day 2
Rock modelling, probability and determinism, practical geostatistics
Fieldwork: Swanlake Bay and Manorbier, Lower Old Red Sandstone (Early Devonian) fluvial facies – sandbody types and palaoesols
Overnight Saundersfoot

Day 3
Property modelling, handling permeability and fractures
Fieldwork: Saundersfoot – folding
Overnight Saundersfoot

Day 4
Dealing with scale: upscaling, multi-scale modelling and the REV
Fieldwork: Stackpole – faulting and fractured carbonates
Overnight Saundersfoot

Day 5
Model-based uncertainty handling; completing the Pembroke model design and debriefing with reservoir and simulation models.
Fieldwork: Tenby – carbonates and structural features
Overnight Saundersfoot

Day 6
Departure

Workshop in the Seismic Expression of Carbonates (G080)

Tutor(s)

Gene Rankey: Professor, University of Kansas.

Overview

The aim of this course is to provide a general overview of the basic principles of carbonate systems and their expression in seismic data, and to demonstrate its utility for exploration and production. The course will include conceptual models, practical hands-on exercises, and demonstrations of the utility of seismic data and derived products. Key examples will illustrate how seismic stratigraphy and seismic attribute analysis can be used to assess reservoir fairways, subdivide a reservoir, constrain reservoir models, and generate high-resolution, geologically constrained predictions of reservoir systems. An important part of this course will be to draw attention to unique aspects of carbonates and how they might differ from siliciclastic from pore to basin scales.

Objectives

You will learn to:

  1. Establish a working knowledge of carbonate sediment and depositional systems.
  2. Assess carbonate seismic attributes, their general classes, and situations in which different types of attributes are most appropriate.
  3. Evaluate quantitative applications of seismic attributes to map seismic facies and porosity in carbonate reservoirs.
  4. Recognize the expression of carbonates in three-dimensions, how these patterns reflect dynamic stratigraphic evolution, and how these patterns can be related to reservoir trends.
  5. Identify the variation and controls on carbonate reservoir architecture in different system tracts.
  6. Appreciate how carbonate petrophysics influences the seismic response of carbonates.
  7. Appraise the different types of carbonate platform on seismic data and assess the presence of key seismic facies.
  8. Illustrate the seismic geometries of carbonate ramps and rimmed shelves and their possible reservoir character.

Level and Audience

Intermediate. The course is aimed at geologists and geophysicists working on carbonate exploration and production projects. No prior knowledge of carbonates is assumed but participants should have some background in the geosciences.

Duration and Logistics

Classroom version: 2 day classroom course comprising presentations, exercises and case studies. Course notes and exercise materials will be distributed to participants during the course. The manual will be provided in digital format and participants will be required to bring a laptop or tablet computer to follow the lectures and exercises

Virtual version: Four 3.5-hour interactive online sessions presented over four days (mornings in North America and afternoons in Europe). Digital course notes and exercise materials will be distributed to participants before the course. Some exercises may be completed by participants off-line.

Course Content

Introduction to the Course

Overview of Carbonate Sediment and Depositional Systems

  • Carbonate factories
  • Skeletal and non-skeletal carbonate grains
  • Differences from siliciclastics
  • Introduce facies models ramps, rimmed shelves, isolated platforms
  • “Unique” aspects of carbonates (produced in place, diagenetically unstable, complex pores, etc)

Carbonate Sequence and Seismic Stratigraphy

  • Basic concepts and terminology: introduction to stratigraphic hierarchy, parasequences, systems tracts, sequences; similarities and differences with siliciclastics
  • Stratal terminations; major surfaces in seismic; features that look like carbonates…but are not

Exercise – defining sequences and unique aspects of carbonates

Seismic Resolution and Seismic Modeling

  • The strengths and limitations of seismic data
  • Illustrate how geometric modeling provides insights into possible pitfalls, and how to avoid them
  • Case studies: Cretaceous, Italy and Bahamas; Permian, west Texas

Exercise: Stratal terminations

Seismic Geometry of Isolated Carbonate Platforms

  • Introduce and illustrate seismic geometries, recognition of seismic sequence boundaries
  • Describe common seismic facies (sequence-based)
  • Potential impact on reservoir character and production

Exercise: Seismic expression of isolated platforms and some challenges

Carbonate Pores and Petrophysics

  • Pore types and petrophysical classes (Choquette-Pray/Lucia)
  • Diagenetic environments and products
  • Influence of cements of velocity
  • Relation between diagenesis and sequence stratigraphy (sequence boundaries, diagenetic alteration related to sequence boundaries, role of climate; spatial variability in diagenesis)
  • Understanding the seismic response of carbonates requires at least a fundamental understanding and appreciation of these principles

Exercise: Petrophysics and carbonates

Seismic Expression of Carbonate Ramps

  • Introduce and illustrate seismic geometries, recognition of seismic sequence boundaries
  • Describe common seismic facies (sequence-based)
  • Potential impact on reservoir character and production

Exercise: Seismic expression of carbonate ramps and some challenges

Seismic Expression of Carbonate Rimmed Shelves

  • Introduce and illustrate seismic geometries, recognition of seismic sequence boundaries
  • Describe common seismic facies (sequence-based)
  • Potential impact on reservoir character and production
  • Case studies: Jurassic, Atlantic margins; West Australia

Exercise: Miocene, Bahamas

Seismic Attributes

  • Define seismic attributes, their general classes, and situations in which different types of attributes are most appropriate
  • Illustrate examples of the qualitative use of seismic attributes to understand carbonate reservoir systems
  • Discuss quantitative applications of seismic attributes to map seismic facies and porosity in carbonate reservoirs
  • Highlight limitations on seismic attribute analysis

Exercise: Seismic expression of carbonates and some challenges

Seismic Geomorphology of Carbonates

  • The expression of carbonates in three-dimensions, how these patterns reflect dynamic stratigraphic evolution, and how these patterns can be related to reservoir trends
  • Time slices, horizon slices, volumetric interpretation
  • Volumetric analysis of seismic data

Exercise: Seismic expression of carbonates in three dimensions

Advanced Seismic Attributes

  • In-depth case study from the Devonian of Western Canadian Basin demonstrates the application of seismic modeling to enhance interpretation. This interpretation of high-frequency sequences is followed by seismic attribute analysis to qualitatively predict reservoir distribution and properties

Best Practices in Pore Pressure and Fracture Pressure Prediction (G043)

Tutor(s)

Richard Swarbrick: Manager, Swarbrick GeoPressure

Overview

This course presents best practices in how data and standard techniques are combined to generate meaningful pore pressure (PP) and fracture pressure (FG) estimates from log, seismic and drilling data, and to use them to develop pre-drill predictions. The limitations are addressed, along with common pitfalls, leading to an understanding of the uncertainty and risk associated with PP and FG prediction.

The course begins by showing the types and reliability of subsurface data used to inform current knowledge, which will also calibrate PP and FG predictions at a remote location. Standard approaches to PP and FG prediction techniques are taught, with careful attention to where these have limitations on account of subsurface environment (thermal, tectonic) and data quality. A new approach to PP prediction using shales is taught as an independent guide to expected PP, especially valuable where only seismic data are available. Prediction of FG is taught by showing how to determine overburden stress and apply standard relationships, including new approaches with PP-stress coupling.

Duration and Logistics

Classroom version: A 1-day classroom course comprising a mix of lectures and discussion (90%) and exercises (10%). The manual will be provided in digital format, and participants will be required to bring a laptop or tablet computer to follow the lectures and exercises.

Virtual version: Three 3.5-hour interactive online sessions presented over 3 days (mornings in North America and afternoons in Europe). A digital manual and exercise materials will be distributed to participants before the course. Some reading and several exercises are to be completed by participants off-line.

Level and Audience

Intermediate. Intended for exploration and development geoscientists, petrophysicists, operations staff and drilling engineers. Familiarity with oilfield data and drilling practices is required. Experience shows that mixed classes of geoscientists and engineers benefit particularly from the discussions and sharing of approaches in this multi-disciplinary area of work.

Objectives

You will learn to:

  1. Distinguish the different types and quality of data that populate pressure-depth and EMW-depth plots for display of pressure predictions and calibration data in well planning.
  2. Use best practice to create PP estimations and predictions from seismic, log and drilling data using standard porosity-based techniques, and from modelling geological systems.
  3. Use best practice to create FG estimations and predictions by generating an overburden and establishing its relationship with FG and PP.
  4. Communicate Min-Expected-Max predictions effectively to both geoscience and engineering/operations staff involved in well planning.

Course Content

Session One

  • Introduction
  • Pressure-depth and EMW-depth plots
  • Geological context for pressure regimes
  • Methods for estimation and prediction of PP using:
    • seismic velocities
    • wireline and drilling-conveyed log data
    • drilling including real-time monitoring
    • modelling

Exercises throughout the day
Session Two

  • Best practice PP prediction
  • Methods of estimation and prediction of FG
  • PP – FG coupling and new methodology for FG
  • Best practice for FG
  • Well planning – assessing a range of predictions (Min to Max)
  • Global examples
  • Uncertainty and risk

Exercises throughout the day

Seismic Processing Workflows (G072)

Tutor(s)

Robert Hardy: Chief Geophysicist, Tonnta Energy Limited

Overview

This course will provide participants with the skills needed to liaise with specialists and implement workflows for seismic data acquisition and processing. Using modern case histories and basic theory, the course covers fundamentals, established workflows and advanced technology. Participants will use interactive processing tools to improve their understanding of the latest techniques and learn how to apply them effectively and efficiently to meet their objectives.

Duration and Logistics

Classroom version: A 3-day in-person course, comprising a mix of lectures with examples (90%), laptop-based exercises and discussion (10%). The manual will be provided in digital format and participants will be required to bring a laptop or tablet computer to follow the lectures and exercises.

Virtual version: Six 3-hour interactive online sessions presented over 6 days (mornings in North America and afternoons in Europe), comprising a mix of lectures, discussion and interactive exercises using case histories to illustrate the basic theory and impact of the techniques discussed. The participants will use a series of web-based software modules to experience the processing options available and learn how to combine the basic tools together to build a flow which meets objectives. A digital manual and exercise materials will be distributed to participants before the course. Some reading and several exercises are to be completed by participants off-line.

Level and Audience

Intermediate. This course is aimed at geoscientists seeking an overview of seismic acquisition techniques and processing methods, and those who wish to liaise effectively with specialists to improve their decision making and deliver objectives. A geophysics refresher is provided but it is helpful if participants have a basic knowledge of seismic acquisition and processing terminology and are actively working with seismic data.

Objectives

You will learn to:

  1. Compare the most common seismic acquisition and processing techniques used in seismic exploration and production, and become more proficient in the terminology used to describe them.
  2. Establish how survey design, earth model building and selection of migration algorithm can affect accuracy of interpretation in depth.
  3. Optimize the impact of seismic processing parameter selection for specific objectives such as amplitude interpretation for exploration and reservoir characterization.
  4. Demonstrate a typical seismic processing workflow covering data preparation, parameterization, noise and multiple suppression, velocity model building, and the imaging process, discussing likely issues at each step.
  5. Compare newer acquisition and processing techniques alongside their potential benefits and pitfalls.
  6. Liaise effectively with specialists, develop workflows and optimize decisions based on quality and cost.

Course Content

Session 1: Workstation based workflow – objective setting

  • Seismic refresher, including a brief overview of basic wave theory, noise suppression, velocity model building, stacking, imaging and factors affecting resolution
  • Basic techniques, such as convolution, sampling, aliasing and interpolation
  • Simple data conditioning techniques, including trace scaling, automatic gain control and frequency and dip filtering

Session 2: Survey design and signal processing workflow

  • Technical aspects of survey design, featuring a basic survey design workflow and rules of thumb for orientation and azimuthal coverage, and designing surveys for both shallow and deeper targets
  • Amplitudes, frequency and wavelet processing, featuring case histories of designature, attenuation compensation and combining acquisition and processing solutions to obtain broadband data and improved resolution

Session 3: Noise and multiple suppression workflow

  • Noise: types, suppression and quality control in marine and land seismic data
  • FK, radon, tau-p analysis, machine learning techniques and quality control
  • Multiple suppression, quality control and interpretation, including predictive methods (deconvolution, shallow water demultiple), moveout methods (radon) and free surface multiple removal (2-D and 3-D SRME)
  • Modern case histories from land, shallow and deepwater environments

Session 4: Imaging workflow

  • Basic migration, prestack time migration and gather generation
  • Correcting for velocity variation and complex sub-surface: prestack depth migration
  • Algorithm choice: Kirchhoff single/multi arrival, Beam vs wavefield methods (including reverse time migration), least-squares migration
  • Anisotropy, including VTI, TTI, orthorhombic cases
  • Imaging with multiples, elastic imaging and future developments

Session 5: Velocity model building techniques for depth imaging and quality control

  • Statics: elevation, refraction, tomographic based statics are compared using a series of synthetic and recent real case histories
  • Full waveform inversion toolkit, quality control and recent case histories
  • Tomography techniques and role of interpreter in velocity model building and quality control, featuring recent case histories from North Sea and Atlantic margins

Session 6: Case histories and introduction to specialized processing

  • Case histories: complex topography, amplitude extraction and data conditioning workflow for reservoir characterization
  • Specialized processing: single sensor, OBC, elastic and 4-D methodologies
  • Meeting objectives, acquisition and processing methods for the future

Additional topics and material
The following additional sections are included online:

  • Seismic data formats: seismic and navigation formats
  • Workstation data loading: including common pitfalls
  • Processing tenders overview

The following optional resources can be made available:

  • Customization of training modules and exercises based on client data
  • Self-paced learning modules provided online in advance of in-person workshop-based sessions

 

Modern and Ancient Tide- and Wave-influenced Depositional Systems: Subsurface Uncertainties in Shallow Marine Reservoirs, Southeast England, UK (G070)

Tutor(s)

Howard Johnson: Shell Professor of Petroleum Geology, Head of the Petroleum Geoscience and Engineering Section, and Director of Petroleum Geoscience, Imperial College London

Overview

Tide- and wave-influenced marginal marine hydrocarbon reservoirs offer a range of subsurface interpretation and development challenges. This course will use both modern and ancient systems to analyze the architecture, internal characteristics, distribution and reservoir quality of a variety of sand-dominated deposits. Modern deposits of the North Norfolk coastline will be used to explore the range of depositional processes operating and the resultant spatial distribution and internal attributes of potential reservoir units. These will be compared with Lower Cretaceous outcrops preserving a range of tidal-influenced and marine embayment deposits. Focus will be placed on the key development challenges in these marginal marine clastic systems.

Duration and Logistics

A 5-day field course comprising a mix of fieldwork, classroom lectures and practical sessions. Classroom learning and field observations will be supported and reinforced by exercise work. The course will be based in Hunstanton with easy access to the coastal field area. Transport will be by coach.

Level and Audience

Intermediate. The course is intended for geologists and reservoir engineers with a knowledge of petroleum geoscience who are working on marginal marine reservoir systems, particularly those preserving evidence of tidal influence.

Exertion Level

This field course requires an EASY exertion level. The first field day is in a quarry at Leighton Buzzard and involves a walk of about 2km (1.25 miles) to the main quarry face. The remaining field locations on the Norfolk coast are accessed by walks of less than 3.5km (2 miles) along flat sandy beaches and tidal channels that may be muddy and slippery in parts.

Objectives

You will learn to:

  1. Interpret the depositional processes and environments that occur in fluvial-, tide- and wave-influenced clastic coastal depositional systems and relate these to the recognition of their ancient equivalents.
  2. Relate individual modern environmental systems to the larger regional-scale, including modern and ancient marine embayment and coastal barrier systems.
  3. Consider the range of geological controls on the reservoir architecture of clastic coastal deposits and relate this understanding to prediction of reservoir sand presence, geometry and rock properties.
  4. Analyze shallow marine sands in outcrop, with particular focus on internal heterogeneity, including potential permeability barriers and baffles.
  5. Assess the broader scale outcrop setting, in terms of the basinal depositional framework and use this understanding to inform prediction of reservoir distribution.
  6. Place clastic coastal depositional systems into their sequence stratigraphic significance, including addressing reservoir occurrence in transgressive and regressive settings.
  7. Use the modern and ancient examples discussed in the classroom and observed in the field to consider implications for exploration and development, particularly with regards to the subsurface reservoirs of the North Sea.

Course Content

Shallow marine systems are influenced by waves, tides or rivers. The course will examine shoreline and shelf systems from basic sedimentology through to specific petroleum issues. Data from modern depositional settings, surface outcrop exposures and subsurface data will be combined to develop an in-depth introduction to the petroleum potential of these depositional systems.

Tidal reservoirs can include good-quality sandstones, but often preserve a significant component of heterolithic (mud / sand) facies at a range of scales. These present challenges predominantly with respect to reservoir modelling and the associated permeability of heterolithic facies / bud-sand alternations in relation to fluid content. Exploration in frontier or mature provinces can target potential sites for tidal sand bodies by integrating an understanding of the regional tidal regime with locations where sand supply enters the basin margin. Working within a depositional and stratigraphic framework to define the context of tidal deposits and the scale and orientation of the potential reservoir units is a strategy that will be explored in this course.

The course will be framed around three themes:

1. Lower Cretaceous tide-dominated estuarine and marine embayment facies (Lower Greensand Group) at Leighton Buzzard
The Lower Cretaceous Woburn Sands is interpreted as a tide-dominated sandy system deposited in a transgressive incised-valley or tidal seaway. Quarries around Leighton Buzzard preserve a variety of tide-dominated faces and, more recently, have been interpreted as representing a change from a narrow estuary setting to a broad marine embayment. NW Europe experienced sea-level rise during the Lower Cretaceous, resulting in widening of the ocean connection and, when combined with local paleogeographic influences, led to tidal dominance in southern England. The course will visit one of the quarries to view the outcrop and enable comparison with the modern depositional system.

2. Modern sedimentology of a wave-dominated, prograding and accreting coastal barrier system of the North Norfolk coast
The modern depositional system of the North Norfolk coast is characterized by a westward prograding and accreting barrier system. The low-gradient shore profile forms a classic barrier coastline with barrier islands and intertidal sandflats backed by dunes, salt marshes and inter-tidal channels. Locally ebb tidal deltas form at the mouth of larger tidal channels. Onshore wave action from the northeast and longshore wave action supply sediment from the east. The course will explore this system with field visits to explore modern sedimentology.

3. Modern sedimentology of a tide-dominated marine embayment (The Wash)
The tide-dominated Holocene Wash embayment is a macrotidal, coastal embayment facing out into the North Sea. It evolved in the early Holocene, during transgression, from an estuarine valley into a broad, tide-dominated marine embayment. It receives little sediment input from the local rivers and is dominated by local marine sediment supply sources from waves and tides. A variety of depositional bodies and facies preserved in The Wash will be discussed during the course.

Itinerary

Day 1
Morning arrival in London.

  • Afternoon course introduction: course aims and objectives, clastic coastal-shelf depositional systems lecture and safety briefing

Overnight in London.

Day 2
Field visits: Munday’s Hill Quarry, Lower Cretaceous Greensand Group

  • Field visits during the day
  • Evening classroom lecture – geological controls on clastic coastal-shelf depositional systems: internal / auto-cyclic factors (processes, environments, etc.); external / allocyclic factors (RSL, tectonics, eustasy, hinterland, etc.); concepts and applications to E&P

Overnight in Hunstanton.

Day 3
Field visit: Wells-next-the-Sea

  • (AM/PM depending on tides) Wells-next-the-Sea, channel and beach – observation of sand bodies, small-scale sedimentary structures and geometries
  • Classroom lecture / practical session: reservoir characterization and 3-D reservoir geological models; modern and ancient (outcrop) analogues; static vs dynamic models; heterogeneity type, scale and significance

Overnight in Hunstanton.

Day 4
Field visit: Stiffkey

  • (AM/PM depending on tides) Stiffkey – walk across salt marsh to observe sedimentary changes
  • Classroom lecture / practical session: Holocene deposystems of the North Sea (Humber, Wash, Thames, Meuse, Rhine Estuary, Rhine Delta, Elbe/Weisser); large-scale context of the Wash / North Norfolk area

Overnight in Hunstanton.

Day 5
Field visit: Brancaster

  • Classroom lecture / practical session: synthesis of learnings
  • Brancaster: shoreface, ‘old mud’ – evidence of pre-existing coastal plain and tidal channel, coastal plain / salt marsh interface

Return to London.

Understanding Seismic Data: Time, Depth and Geology (G082)

Tutor(s)

David Kessler: President of SeismicCity

Ron Kerr: Independent seismic processing QC consultant

John Byrd: President and Principal Geoscientist, ByrdGEO

Overview

The objective of the course is to deliver a broad understanding of seismic data processing and imaging to interpreters and geologists working with seismic data. The course is based on various case studies that are connected to geological fundamentals. Upon completion, course participants will be able to successfully understand depth migrated seismic data, know how to differentiate signal from artifacts, understand industrial methods and workflows, and connect seismic data to geological settings for prospect evaluation and generation.

Duration and Logistics

A 4-day in-person classroom course, consisting of lectures and exercises. A digital manual will be provided for the course.

Level and Audience

Intermediate. The course is intended for seismic interpreters and geologists involved in the use and evaluation of seismic data.

Objectives

You will learn to:

  1. Establish the fundamentals of marine- and land-based seismic from acquisition to pre-processing.
  2. Examine the processing steps leading to post- and pre-stack time migration, and post-stack depth migration.
  3. Evaluate various migration parameters used in the application of pre-stack depth migration and how they affect the PSDM image.
  4. Gauge the accuracy of time to depth conversion by application of pre-stack depth migration, as well as seismic to well tie and residual depth correction.
  5. Demonstrate the fundamental differences between depth and time migration and the improved imaging results when depth migration is utilized to resolve lateral velocity variations.
  6. Evaluate the link between the pre-stack depth image and the underlying geological settings.
  7. Analyze the complex structural geometries associated with salt tectonics and their significant associated imaging challenges.
  8. Differentiate signal from artifacts.
  9. Assess the construction of geological models utilizing our common understanding of velocity estimation, anisotropic parameters and different geologic settings.
  10. Connect seismic data to geological settings for prospect evaluation and generation.

Course Content

Session 1

General Review: Seismic processing, imaging and geological motivation

The course starts with a general description of basic concepts and methods in both time and seismic depth imaging to set the foundation for the course. A brief review of the implications of different geologic settings, subsurface geometries and exploration – exploitation targets will help to establish our motivation. Building on examples from various case studies, we will introduce and review fundamentals of velocity and anisotropy, seismic acquisition and the basic processing steps leading to post- and pre-stack time migration, and then introduce post-stack and pre-stack depth migration (PSDM). The main objectives of depth imaging: correct image, correct depth and correct dip are stated and explained. We will also establish the relation between the PSDM image and well drilling results.

Forward modelling, marine data acquisition and time domain preprocessing

We will demonstrate how waves propagate in elastic media and describe the connection between wave propagation physics and the math used in seismic data processing. Starting with a basic review of wave propagation and ray theory in isotropic and anisotropic media, we will progress to examination of ray diagram curves produced in cases of both simple and complex geology, and the application of pre-stack depth migration. We will progress into the field of numerical approximations to illustrate various wave and ray solutions in geophysical studies, and computer applications for solving the underlying wave equations in seismic processing. Seismic forward modeling describing wave propagation in the sub-surface is inherent in processing. Utilizing examples from the main processing of marine seismic data, we will show how the recorded data are pre-processed to produce more interpretable data. Examples will include OBN dual sensor summation, denoise, deghost and SRME demultiple.

Session 2

Land time domain processing

We will start with the basics and fundamentals of land seismic pre-processing by building on our experience from the marine examples in the previous session. Land-based seismic data presents different challenges, so we follow the processes from acquisition, pre-processing, detailed velocity analysis and pre-stack time and depth migration, i.e. how do we get from raw field shots to data that interpreters will be able to use. This behind-the-scenes look is important; decisions made during pre-processing can affect any prospect. For land pre-processing, this includes refraction and residual statics, deconvolution, denoise and 5-D interpolation. We will use practical examples, demonstrating the basic concepts of how/why these routines are used and give tips as to what to look out for when processing a land seismic dataset.

The theory of post stack and pre-stack depth migration

Using both wave and ray equations that were examined in the previous sessions, we move on to discuss how these equations are used for application of depth migration. We start with ray-based depth migration and cover the basic concepts of Kirchhoff summation migration. Next we tackle the building blocks of wave equation depth migrations: Downward Continuation and Imaging Condition. We describe the formulation of one-way wave equation depth migration and two-way wave equation depth migration, as well as depth migration applied for both isotropic and anisotropic media. Step by step, we examine various depth migration impulse responses, migration of single shots and stacking of migrated shots to produce the final stacked image. We also investigate the numerical artifacts that are associated with each type of PSDM used in the industry. The objective is to understand how depth migrations (ray based and wave based) work and to cover the limitation of each depth migration algorithm. Special attention will be given to a demonstration of how Reverse Time Migration (RTM) works. We will conclude demonstrating the differences between RTM based on the acoustic wave equation and the elastic wave equation.

Session 3

Migration parameterization

Here we progress from theory to practice and discuss the implementation of pre-stack depth migration to understand the critical role of various parameters used in the application of PSDM and how they affect the PSDM image. Progressing from a review of the main parameters needed for pre-stack depth migration, to a detailed discussion of the key migration parameters: operator dip, migration aperture and frequency range. We continue with a detailed review of the way image gathers are constructed by various pre-stack depth migration algorithms, their advantages and limitations. This includes variable offset gathers, offset vector tiles, variable offset common azimuth gathers, common offset variable azimuth gathers, common shot gathers, common surface location gathers and reflection angle gathers. We conclude by discussing PSDM stacking procedures, including straight stack, controlled stacking and vector image partitioning.

Seismic velocities and velocity estimation techniques

This session is designed to familiarize participants with industrial use and theoretical aspects of velocity estimation techniques and to analyze the advantages and limitations of each. We start with a review of the various definitions of velocity fields used in seismic processing and depth imaging, including stacking velocities, RMS velocities, NMO and DMO velocities, Dix conversion, interval velocities, vertical velocities and residual velocities. This is followed by review and explanations of various velocity analysis techniques used in the industry, from the simplest to the most advanced, progressing to explaining and demonstrating how ray-based reflection tomography and wave-based Full Waveform Inversion (FWI) work. We conclude with a discussion on the accuracy of time-to-depth conversion done by application of pre-stack depth migration, as well as seismic to well tie and residual depth correction.

Session 4

Anisotropy and time-to-depth conversion

The geological models constructed for the application of pre-stack depth migration incorporate the subsurface geometry, velocity and anisotropic fields. We start by reviewing the various anisotropic models used by the industry and explain the parametrization for complex orthorhombic anisotropic media. This is followed by an introduction to the commonly used Thompsen parameters for describing anisotropy and their use in industrial implementation. Utilizing various geological settings, we carefully examine pre-stack depth migration positioning of key reflectors in various anisotropic cases to determine whether anisotropy was correctly applied. We conclude by discussing the relations between azimuthal anisotropy and the estimation of fracture orientation and density, as well as the objectives of application of PSDM using complex anisotropic models.

Practical aspects including post processing and multiple attenuation

Several examples of synthetic and real data cases of application of PSDM will be used to demonstrate the fundamental differences between depth and time migration and the improved imaging results when depth migration is utilized to resolve lateral velocity variations. This fundamental difference affects key aspects of interpretation: structure, dip, depth to target, as well as location of anticlines and synclines. Linking back to the input velocity model, we will explain why accurate velocities are extremely critical for depth migration and the importance of post-migration post-processing, including multiple attenuation. More importantly, we will demonstrate why inaccurate depth velocities might jeopardize the sub-surface image. The link between the PSDM image and the underlying geological settings will be reviewed and explained.

Session 5

Salt tectonics

The complex structural geometries associated with salt tectonics pose significant imaging challenges. Here we will briefly review the genesis of salt structures and their varying structural domains to provide a geological foundation for different seismic acquisition and processing strategies. Our discussion will include a review of salt basin geometries and deposition, and the fundamental mechanisms driving salt deformation. Outcrop and sub-surface examples will be discussed to help us decipher the progression from autochthonous to allochthonous salt bodies, and then the evacuation of salt and the associated structural geometries. Particular attention will be given to identifying key stratal and structural geometries associated with salt deformation and kinematics.

Integration of interpretation and model building

Here we discuss the construction of geological models utilizing our common understanding of velocity estimation, anisotropic parameters and different geologic settings. Model building invariably introduces interpretation into the processing workflow and an integrated effort between the seismic interpreter and seismic processor is key to successful model building. We start with the construction of salt bodies by reviewing the link between velocity models and the pre-stack depth-migration images and examining various workflows using several case studies. We explain exploration targets related to overthrust geology and demonstrate how to build a velocity model to correctly image these target layers. We then cover model building of faulted geology. We explain ‘fault shadows’ and what the optimal way to construct a velocity model is to resolve them. The last geological setting to be covered is related to unconventional plays. The geology in this case is ‘simple’, however the imaging objectives are different and require accuracy and resolution. PSDM has an important role in resolving seismic challenges to assist unconventional drilling programs. This will be discussed and demonstrated.

Session 6

The model and image quality

We will examine the relationship between the anisotropic models used as input to pre-stack depth migration and the corresponding image they produce. Various algorithms may perform better if the anisotropic models used as input are slightly modified; this includes operations such as smoothing of the velocity models, optimization of salt bodies, as well as applying limitations on the anisotropic fields. We will review the sensitivity of each depth migration algorithm to the input velocity / anisotropic models, including ray-based PSDM, downward propagation PSDM and two-way wave equation (RTM) PSDM. We will also examine how accurate the anisotropic model should be to achieve reliable imaging for each type of migration algorithm, and the implications for selecting a drilling location.

Imaging and interpretation of sub-salt sediments

Less sub-salt illumination and the resulting image artifacts create imaging – and therefore interpretation – challenges. For example, subsalt artifacts may come from multiples, converted waves or algorithm noise. To help differentiate coherent signal from coherent noise, we review the imaging of converted waves below salt bodies, prism waves in close proximity to salt bodies, and inner bed multiples, to decipher the sub-salt coherent noise that is part of the depth-migrated data. This enables us to differentiate noise from signal when interpreting the subsalt section. In an effort to improve sub-salt imaging, new seismic acquisition and depth-imaging methods are continuously being introduced to the marketplace. Currently an increasing number of Ocean Bottom Node (OBN) surveys are acquired. The correct processing of data from these surveys requires implementation of Elastic RTM. The different aspects and capabilities of elastic RTM PSDM will be reviewed, including sub-salt imaging by use of converted waves and their impact on the selection of sub-salt drilling locations.

Session 7

PSDM amplitudes

We move on from a focus on correctly imaging the structural geometries, to concentrate on preserving seismic amplitude. This is directly linked to evaluation of amplitude-related prospects, as well as selection of drilling locations. A review of illumination analysis techniques, including both ray-based and full wave equation-based methods will provide insight on amplitudes extracted from depth-migrated data and lead us to provide a workflow for analyzing amplitude maps as part of the prospect generation process. This requires examining the theoretical basis of least-squares RTM (LSRTM) by interrogating data examples where it has been used. Another PSDM objective is to produce PSDM gathers that can be used as input to impedance inversion. We conclude with a case study of a stratigraphic-driven exploration to examine the advantages of using PSDM gathers over time-domain gathers as input for impedance inversion.

Prospect generation

Clear definition of a prospect or play elements can significantly reduce the geologic risk associated with exploration and exploitation. In this final session we will review the primary play and prospect elements in general, and more specifically with relation to illuminating their subsurface geometries. Discussions will include consideration of the geological evolution and some basic structural techniques to assess the viability of the interpreted geometries. Participants will interpret several seismic lines to gain familiarity with identifying these features, the uncertainties associated with their interpretations, and the potential for reducing those uncertainties using the seismic imaging and processing techniques discussed in the previous sessions.

Salt Tectonics of the Gulf of Mexico (G092)

Tutor(s)

Mark G. Rowan: President, Rowan Consulting, Inc.

Overview

The objective of this 3-day course is to provide geoscientists with a detailed explanation of those aspects of salt tectonics applicable to the northern and southern Gulf of Mexico (GoM) salt basins. It consists primarily of lectures, with examples from the GoM and other basins, that are supplemented by practical exercises. The emphasis is on fundamental mechanics and processes, structural geometries and evolution, salt-sediment interaction and the implications for hydrocarbon exploration and production.

Duration and Logistics

A 3-day in-person classroom course, comprising a mix of lectures (75%) and seismic exercises (25%). The manual will be provided in digital format and participants will be required to bring a laptop or tablet computer to follow the lectures and exercises.

Level and Audience

Intermediate. The course is intended for geoscientists working the Gulf of Mexico and is also applicable to salt basins around the world.

Objectives

You will learn to:

  1. Understand the implications of layered-evaporite sequences for velocity-model building and seismic interpretation.
  2. Describe how halite differs from other lithologies and how that impacts deformation in salt basins.
  3. Characterize the ways in which extension, contraction and differential loading trigger salt flow and diapir initiation / growth.
  4. Interpret typical salt and stratal geometries associated with salt evacuation and diapirism.
  5. Predict how drape folding around passive diapirs impacts stratal geometries, faulting and reservoir distribution in diapir-flank traps.
  6. Understand why and how allochthonous salt forms and how salt sheets / canopies evolve.
  7. Assess the effects of salt on various aspects of the petroleum system, including trap formation, reservoir presence, hydrocarbon maturation and migration and seal.

Course Content

This course will focus on the structural geology of salt basins, the geological interpretation of seismic data and the interactions between salt and surrounding strata. Each day’s lectures will be supplemented by appropriate seismic-based exercises using 2-D and 3-D seismic data.

Salt basins

  • Layered evaporite sequences
  • Tectonic settings

Fundamentals of salt tectonics

  • Mechanics of halite and other evaporites
  • Drives and processes of gravitational failure of divergent margins
  • Definitions

Extensional salt tectonics

  • Thin-skinned extension and diapir initiation
  • Diapir reactivation
  • Thick-skinned extension

Translational salt tectonics

Contractional salt tectonics

  • Thin-skinned shortening
  • Diapir initiation and rejuvenation

Strike-slip salt tectonics

Vertical salt tectonics

  • Passive diapirism
  • Salt movement triggered by differential loading
  • Turtle structures and expulsion-rollover structures
  • Near-diapir folding and faulting
  • Dissolution

Allochthonous salt tectonics

  • Salt sheet initiation and advance
  • Styles and evolution of sheets and canopies

Implication for the petroleum system

  • Trap formation and timing
  • Reservoir distribution and facies
  • Hydrocarbon maturation and migration
  • Salt and weld seal

Trap and Seal Analysis: Theory and Application (G090)

Tutor(s)

Russell K. Davies: Redlands Fault Geological Consulting LLC

Overview

This course introduces the concepts and methods in trap and seal analysis, particularly in relation to fault characterization, including fault mapping and fault seal, as applied to cross-fault flow resistance in traps for hydrocarbons and/or CO2. In addition, the concepts of caprock analysis are introduced for an integrated trap and seal analysis in subsurface reservoirs. The lectures introduce fundamentals and advanced concepts for faulting and flow for the prediction of fault behavior in subsurface traps and the concepts discussed are applied in simple exercises to reinforce learning.

Duration and Logistics

Classroom version: A 4-day classroom course, comprising a mix of lectures (65%) and hands-on exercises (35%). The manual will be provided in digital format and participants will be required to bring a laptop or tablet computer to follow the lectures and exercises.

Virtual version: Five 4-hour interactive online sessions presented over five days (mornings in North America and afternoons in Europe). Digital course notes and exercise materials will be distributed to participants before the course. Some exercises may be completed by participants off-line.

Level and Audience

Intermediate. The course is intended for geoscientists (geologists and geophysicists) and petroleum engineers, so they can apply these principles in their subsurface projects.

Objectives

You will learn to:

  1. Analyze fault geometries and architecture, apply this knowledge to make robust fault interpretations.
  2. Assess fault rock types and properties and likely impacts on fluid flow across and along faults.
  3. Conduct juxtaposition seal analysis and employ triangle diagrams.
  4. Apply algorithms, such as SGR and CSF, for predicting clay contents across faults.
  5. Assess the relationship between threshold pressure and fault seal capacity against the clay content predicted across fault surfaces.
  6. Characterize faults as potential migration and leakage pathways.
  7. Evaluate the geomechanical and capillary properties of top seal units.

Course Content

The course is divided into ten topics:

  1. Introduction to fault mapping and trap and seal characterization
  2. Fault geometry mapping and fault zone architecture
    • Introduction to fundamental characteristics of fault geometry, fault linkage and fault throw distribution, and development of fault zones and fault rock
    • Interpretation techniques and pitfalls
  3. Fault Rock Properties
    • Different fault rock types are discussed with examples showing differences in mechanical and chemical deformation that may impact fluid flow
    • Description and deformation mechanisms
    • Flow properties of faults
      • permeability, porosity and threshold pressure
  4. Flow Basics
    • A theoretical interlude to introduce the basic concepts on flow through porous media, including capillary and permeability controls
    • Permeability and Darcy’s Law
    • Capillarity threshold pressure
      • wettability
      • interfacial tension
    • Relative permeability
  5. Fault Mapping
    • Juxtaposition seal
    • Fault rock seal
      • Shale Gouge Ratio (SGR)
      • Clay Smear Factor (CSF)
      • Effective Shale Gouge Ratio (ESGR)
    • Relationship between threshold pressure, permeability and clay content
    • Relationship between threshold pressure and sealing capacity of faults
  6. Triangle Diagrams
    • A quick and efficient method to evaluate the sealing capacity of faults based on modeled stratigraphy from well logs or derived from the expected depositional setting
    • Evaluating the clay distributions related to threshold pressure and permeability provides the information for the seal risk of faults
  7. Faults in simulation
    • Review and methods of fault rock properties in reservoir flow simulation
  8. Geomechanics as applied to up-fault flow risks
    • Faults as migration routes and paths
    • Fault reactivation and along fault flow risks
  9. Fundamentals of top seal (caprock) analysis
    • Mechanical and capillary controls
  10. Validation, Risk and Uncertainty
    • A discussion of validating the fault seal from available behavior and discussion of associated risks and uncertainty

Customization

The course can be adjusted for a CO2 focus. It can also be modified to include an additional day for the participants to learn the basic functionality of the Structural and Fault Analysis Module in Petrel. This option will require licenses of Petrel and the Structural and Fault Analysis Module from SLB. An additional day could also be included as a workshop for the client to bring in proprietary data and trap and seal issues to discuss potential solutions.

Engineering of Resource Plays for Technical Professionals (G003)

Tutor(s)

Yucel Akkutlu: Professor, Texas A&M University

Overview

This course presents the terminology, methodology and concepts of drilling, completion and reservoir engineering as applied to unconventional resource plays, including oil-rich shales, gas shales and coal-seam gas. It will cover the latest practices as well as discuss future directions in unconventional resource engineering. Case studies are used to illustrate particular challenges presented by these plays. The environmental impacts on air and water resources are considered. Participants will learn to become more effective members of multi-disciplinary resource evaluation teams by developing a solid understanding of appropriate engineering concepts and terminology.

Duration and Logistics

Classroom version: A 3-day course comprising a mix of lectures (70%), case studies (20%) and exercises (10%). The manual will be provided in digital format and participants will be required to bring a laptop or tablet computer to follow the lectures and exercises.

Virtual version: Five 4-hour interactive online sessions presented over 5 days (mornings in North America and afternoons in Europe), including a mix of lectures (70%), case studies (20%) and exercises (10%). A digital manual and hard-copy exercise materials will be distributed to participants before the course.

Level and Audience

Intermediate. The course is designed for technical professionals and managers who want to understand the role of the engineer in resource play projects. In particular, geoscientists, petrophysicists and drilling, completion and stimulation engineers would benefit from the course.

Objectives

You will learn to:

  1. Discuss aspects of reservoir, drilling, completion and stimulation engineering with engineering members of unconventional project teams.
  2. Contrast engineering approaches to conventional and unconventional projects.
  3. Assess resource estimates, production forecasts and economic evaluations for unconventional plays.
  4. Review the sampling procedures adopted by reservoir engineers.
  5. Predict the hydrocarbon phase change in reservoirs.
  6. Assess the demand for and disposal of water associated with fracturing and producing unconventional reservoirs.
  7. Assess the impact of unconventional projects on air quality.
  8. Discuss recent advances in the optimization of resource plays.

Course Content

Introduction

  • Overview of unconventional resources
  • Geological and geochemical considerations for resource shales

Drilling, completion and stimulation technologies

  • Horizontal well drilling
  • Multi-stage hydraulic fracturing
  • Micro-seismic monitoring

Sampling and laboratory measurements for shale

  • Sampling techniques and field measurements of fluid content
  • Porosity and pore size measurements
  • Permeability measurements
  • Storage and flow characteristics of resource shales
  • Pore size considerations for hydrocarbon storage and transport
  • Multi-phase flow in tight formations

Reservoir engineering

  • Hydrocarbon recovery from kerogen pores
  • Volumetric calculations for natural gas reservoirs
  • Material balance for natural gas reservoirs
  • Pressure transient regimes in hydraulically fractured horizontal wells
  • Rate-transient and pressure-transient models and their applications
  • Production history-marching and forecasting
  • Fracture Net Present Value (NPV) and Discounted Return on Investment (DROI) calculations
  • Decline curve analysis using Arp’s equation
  • Estimated ultimate recovery of production well

Future directions in unconventional resource engineering

  • New trends in drilling and completion technologies
  • Enhanced hydrocarbon recovery technologies for shale
  • Environmental considerations, including water resources management, groundwater protection and waste-water disposal