World-class training for the modern energy industry

An Introduction to Sequence Stratigraphy (G068)

Tutor(s)

Gary Hampson: Imperial College London

Overview

Sequence stratigraphy is a key tool for subsurface interpretation of depositional systems and thereby predicting the distribution of reservoir, source rock and seal lithologies. The course will introduce the principles and methods of sequence stratigraphy, with a focus on continental, shallow-marine and deep-marine depositional settings. Participants will apply these principles and methods via the sequence stratigraphic interpretation of subsurface data (e.g. seismic, well-log, core, reservoir production data).

Duration and Logistics

Classroom version: 2 days including a mix of lectures and exercises. The course manual will be provided in digital format and participants will be required to bring along a laptop or tablet to follow the lectures and exercises.

Online version: Three 3.5-hour interactive online sessions presented over 3 days (afternoons in Europe and mornings in North America). A digital manual will be distributed to participants before the course.

Level and Audience

Fundamental. This course is designed for junior geoscientists working on a variety of subsurface energy projects who want to gain a basic understanding of sequence stratigraphy and its applications to subsurface data sets. Participants should have knowledge of basic sedimentology and subsurface geology.

Objectives

You will learn to:

  1. Understand the basic terminology of sequence stratigraphy.
  2. Describe the key surfaces and systems tracts.
  3. Appreciate the main components of depositional sequences in continental, shallow-marine and deep-marine systems.
  4. Evaluate a range of subsurface data in terms of sequence stratigraphic methods and models.

Course Content

Session 1: Key concepts and terminology

  • Introduction to stratigraphy
  • Lithostratigraphy and chronostratigraphy
  • Sequence stratigraphy controls and concepts
    • Accommodation / Relative sea level
    • Sediment supply
    • Regression vs. transgression
  • Sequence stratigraphy terminology
    • Key definitions
    • Formation of parasequences
    • Transgressive surfaces
    • Parasequence stacking patterns
    • Forced regressions
    • Incised valleys
    • Sequence boundaries
    • Interfluves
    • Shoreline trajectory
  • Exercise on identifying stratal patterns and key surfaces

Session 2: Exploration-scale applications

  • Depositional sequences
  • Seismic analysis
  • Well-log analysis
  • Application to exploration plays
  • Exercise on passive-margin exploration plays

Session 3: Reservoir-scale applications

  • Application to shallow-marine reservoirs
  • Exercise on continental and shallow-marine reservoirs
  • Application to deep-marine reservoirs
  • Exercise on deep-marine reservoirs

Introduction to Clastic Facies (G073)

Tutor(s)

Howard Feldman: Consulting Geologist and Affiliate faculty, Colorado State University

Overview

This course provides an introduction to siliciclastic facies in all aqueous settings, focusing on sand deposition for application to conventional reservoirs. The course begins with an overview of sedimentary structures and their recognition in outcrop and core. Observations of sedimentary structures and facies stacking patterns are then used to interpret depositional environments and make predictions about sand body geometry, size, and compartmentalization. The course makes extensive use of large-format (50% scale) core photos and outcrop photopans from a wide range of environments. Subsurface data sets, including seismic and well logs, are used to illustrate the application of these concepts to subsurface mapping. We will also cover an introduction to core description workflows.

Objectives

You will learn to:

  1. Interpret basic depositional models of siliciclastic systems with a focus on sandy facies, and prediction away from control at a range of scales.
  2. Collect basic observations from core that can be used to constrain depositional models.
  3. Integrate cores, well logs and seismic, in order to make predictions about the distribution of reservoir, source and seal.
  4. Interpret genetic stratigraphic units in core, well logs and seismic.

Level and Audience

Fundamental. The course is intended for subsurface geoscientists who would like an introduction to siliciclastic facies and their interpretation from core, well logs and seismic. There is no assumption of previous knowledge of clastic systems, and simple concepts are built up into sophisticated depositional models. Skills are built through a series of exercises using outcrop photopans, high-resolution core photos, well logs and seismic. There is abundant opportunity for interaction.

Duration and Logistics

Classroom: A 2-day course comprising a mix of lectures and exercises. The manual will be provided in digital format and participants will be required to bring a laptop or tablet computer to follow the lectures and exercises.

Virtual session: Four 3-hour interactive online sessions presented over 4 days (mornings in North America and afternoons in Europe). Digital course notes and exercise materials will be distributed to participants before the course.

Course Content

Session 1: Fluvial systems

  • Reynolds numbers and how they relate to bedforms
  • Recognition of sedimentary structures in core
  • How to utilize sedimentary structures and burrows to constrain depositional conditions
  • Fluvial depositional models (meandering, braided and fixed rivers)
  • Large-scale fluvial systems (alluvial fans, distributive fluvial systems, tributary systems)
  • Paleosols and how to use them

Session 2: Coastal systems

  • Introduction to coastal parasequences, the fundamental genetic unit of prograding clastic shoreline
  • Wave-dominated coasts (barrier islands, strand plains, wave-dominated deltas)
  • River-dominated deltas
  • Tide-dominated deltas and tidal recognition criteria

Session 3: Incised valley fills – Deepwater fans part 1

  • Incised valley facies models
  • Sediment gravity flows (slumps, debris flows, turbidity currents)
  • MTCs
  • Deepwater channels and levees

Session 4: Deepwater fans part 2

  • Avulsions
  • Lobes
  • Passive margin fans
  • Active margin fans
  • Drift deposits

Prospect Generation, Maturation and Risking (G026)

Tutor(s)

Vitor AbreuPresident, ACT-GEO; Adjunct Professor, Rice University 

Overview

This practical, hands-on course is designed to enable attendees to enhance their skills of mapping and assessing prospects. This course teaches participants how to use play fairway mapping and petroleum system analysis to identify high potential plays and prospects, even in areas with sparse data. Once prospects are identified, the course teaches how to get map-derived, geologically based, objective inputs for prospect assessment and risking. This approach creates documented results that can be used to rank opportunities and make business decisions confidently.

Duration and Logistics

Classroom version: 5 days; a mix of classroom lectures and discussion (50%) and exercises (50%). The manual will be provided in digital format and participants will be required to bring a laptop or tablet computer to follow the lectures and exercises.

Virtual version: Ten 3-hour interactive online sessions presented over 5 days (morning and afternoon sessions in North America). A digital manual and hard-copy exercise materials will be distributed to participants before the course. Some reading and several exercises are to be completed by participants off-line.

Level and Audience

Fundamental. This course is intended for early- to mid-career geoscientists, reservoir engineers and petrophysicists, as well as managers – anyone involved in portfolio management and in generating and risking prospects.

Objectives

You will learn to:

  1. Identify and map plays and leads.
  2. Mature a lead to a prospect.
  3. Mature a prospect to a drillable status.
  4. Understand prospect definition workflow.
  5. Identify and map different types of structural and stratigraphic traps.
  6. Quantify risks and uncertainties related to presence of key play elements.
  7. Develop strategies to reduce play element presence risk.
  8. Apply fundamental concepts of portfolio management.

Course Content

From prospect lead to potential field

  • Exploration methods and strategies
  • Petroleum potential assessment in a basin and key stages in the exploration workflow
  • Subsurface mapping techniques for seismic and wells
  • Principles of stratigraphic mapping
  • Principles of structural mapping
  • Mapping generation, contouring and QCing
  • Workshop and hands-on exercises on prospect generation

Prospect analysis

  • Basin evolution history
  • Seismic and well data integration and interpretation
  • Risks and uncertainty estimation
  • Prospect ranking
  • Identification and assessment of risks and uncertainties related to geological factors (source, reservoir, seal, trap and preservation)
  • Chance of success
  • Hands-on exercises and case study

De-risking Carbonate Exploration (G008)

Tutor(s)

Paul Wright: Independent Consultant

Overview

This is a ‘what you really need to know about carbonates’ course, in order to attempt to de-risk carbonate prospects. Carbonate rocks are complex; however, there are basic principles that provide a framework in which such complexity may be rendered understandable. The course focuses on large scale rules, risks, uncertainties, strategies and workflows, with a heavy emphasis on seismic facies. It does not focus on appraisal or development aspects.

Duration and Logistics

Classroom version: A 4-day classroom course comprising a mix of lectures (75%) and exercises (25%). The manual will be provided in digital format and participants will be required to bring a laptop or tablet computer to follow the lectures and exercises.

Virtual version: Eight 3-hour interactive online sessions presented over 8 days (mornings in North America and afternoons in Europe). A digital manual and exercise materials will be distributed to participants before the course. Some reading and several exercises are to be completed by participants off-line.

Level and Audience

Advanced. This course is really aimed at explorationists with at least a basic knowledge of carbonates but will also prove useful to more experienced geoscientists by providing a synthesis of recent advances in understanding carbonate reservoirs, supported by potentially highly practical methodologies for framing uncertainties for reservoir presence.

Objectives

You will learn to:

1. Frame likely carbonate plays in relation to a given stratigraphic age and basin type.

2. Identify the main types of carbonate platform as seen from seismic data, de-risk certain types of features and assess the likely presence of key seismic facies.

3. Evaluate for a given interval and platform type the likely reservoir facies (platform interior, carbonate sands, reefs, slope systems and chalks) and assess the likelihood of reservoir presence.

4. Understand how the development of primary and secondary porosity has varied through geologic time and how these changes impact upon reservoir quality.

5. Appreciate the principal modes of formation of dolomites and the predictive uses of different dolomite models.

6. Understand and identify the diverse origins of palaeokarstic macroporosity, associated risks and the different strategies for developing palaeokarstic reservoirs.

Course Content

The course consists of lectures and exercises. The lectures focus on specific reservoir systems based on broad seismic facies and develop the methodology for defining the likelihood of reservoir-prone facies and of the diagenetic conditions for reservoir presence. For each major reservoir type a set of key associations and factors are evaluated as a form of flexible workflow. This approach is complemented by a series of exercises, including seismic, for identifying possible leads and carrying out de-risking procedures.

Topics

  • A refresher on the basics of carbonate rock composition
  • Carbonate platform types and seismic expression
  • Plays, traps and reservoirs – generalities
  • How carbonates change through time and how to predict likely reservoir-prone systems at different stratigraphic intervals
  • Source rocks, including intraplatformal basins
  • Isolated carbonate buildups – de-risking targeting carbonate ‘bumps’
  • Platform margin plays: facies-controlled reservoirs and diagenetic controls (dolomite, fracturing, karst)
  • Platform interiors – Late Paleozoic ice-house grainstone-to-build and fill systems, greenhouse systems and dolomite models
  • Carbonate sands – tide, wave (barriers islands, infralittoral wedges) and internalites. Emphasizing how to determine possible sandbody geometries from regional to local data sets
  • Slope and basinal carbonate plays, including fan lobe systems and chalks
  • Dolomites – especially HTDs and hydrothermal burial corrosion-related reservoirs
  • Paleokarst – types, facies, identification, exploration strategies and risk

Geology for Non-geologists (G088)

Tutor(s)

Jonathan Evans: Energy Transition Advisor, GeoLogica Ltd

Overview

The aim of this course is to provide an overview of the fundamental geological topics relevant to the modern energy industry. Focus will be placed on petroleum geoscience and the basics of petroleum exploration, but the course will also cover geothermal systems, carbon capture and storage, and hydrogen energy.

Duration and Logistics

Classroom: A 2-day course comprising a mix of lectures, case studies and exercises. The manual will be provided in digital format and participants will be required to bring a laptop or tablet computer to follow the lectures and exercises.

Virtual version: Four 3.5-hour interactive online sessions presented over 4 days (mornings in North America and afternoons in Europe). Digital course notes and exercises will be distributed to participants before the course.

Level and Audience

Fundamental. The course is largely aimed at non-geologists who are interested in knowing more about the fundamentals of geology and how these relate to the modern energy industry.

Objectives

You will learn to:

  1. Describe the fundamental principles of geology, including different rock types, geological time and stratigraphy.
  2. Understand the basics of petroleum geoscience, including the formation of oil and gas.
  3. Review the different types of reservoir rocks and their properties, including porosity and permeability.
  4. Recognize how we search for oil and gas, including using seismic and other data.
  5. Understand how we drill for oil and gas and how we acquire information from wells, such as log and core data.
  6. Recognize what technical staff in companies do and how they work together.
  7. Describe the basic principles of carbon capture and storage and how it is being adopted worldwide as a climate change mitigation tool.
  8. Understand the basics of geothermal energy, what it is and how it can be used.
  9. Appreciate how hydrogen energy can be used and stored underground.

Course Content

The course is divided into four sections:

Section 1: The principles of geology and the subsurface

Geological principles:

  • Structure of the Earth
  • Plate tectonics
  • Rock types
  • Geological time
  • Stratigraphy

Energy industry structure:

  • Global distribution of reserves and production (oil and gas)
  • Industry players and stakeholders (States, NOCs, IOCs, Independents etc.)
  • Oil and gas value chains (define upstream, downstream, trading etc.)
  • How companies create value for resource owners (states) and investors
  • Energy statistics, trends and future challenges
  • Climate change and potential mitigations

Section 2: Oil and gas basics

The value chain:

  • Exploration
  • Appraisal
  • Development
  • Production
  • Abandonment

Petroleum systems:

  • Source rocks – formation, maturation and migration
  • Reservoirs
  • Seals
  • Traps

Imaging the subsurface:

  • Satellite and airborne data
  • Seismic – 2-D and 3-D
  • Well logs and core
  • Analogues – outcrop studies, other oil/gas fields

Section 3: Drilling holes and getting hydrocarbons out

Overview of the drilling process:

  • Drill bits, drill pipe, running casing and cementing

Types of wells:

  • Vertical, horizontal and multilateral
  • Exploration, appraisal, production and injection

Rig types:

  • Land, barge, jack-up, semi-sub and drillship

Section 4: The future energy mix

Geothermal energy:

  • How is this different to oil and gas?
  • How do we extract heat from the subsurface?

Carbon capture and storage:

  • Capturing carbon dioxide
  • Storing carbon dioxide
  • Monitoring the subsurface reservoir

Hydrogen energy:

  • Producing hydrogen
  • Uses
  • Storing it underground

Other geological roles in energy:

  • Geonuclear – waste disposal
  • Critical minerals for the energy transition

Plays, Prospects and Petroleum Systems, Wessex Basin, Dorset, UK (G054)

Tutor(s)

Jonathan EvansGeoLogica 

Overview

This course will illustrate the processes of play analysis and prospect evaluation using the geology of the Wessex Basin and outcrops of the Jurassic Coast of Devon and Dorset. The course will assess the elements of a working petroleum system including reservoir, source, seal and trap in the context of the Wytch Farm oilfield. Participants will have the opportunity to study a wide range of clastic and carbonate depositional systems, in addition to varying structural concepts, and visit two producing oil fields.

The manual will be provided in digital format and you will be required to bring a laptop or tablet computer to the course.

Duration and Logistics

A five-day field course comprising fieldwork (70%) and classroom exercises (30%). The course will be based in Weymouth and transport will be by coach.

Exertion Level

This class requires an EASY exertion level. Outcrop access is easy with short walks of 1-2 km mostly across sandy beaches. Some field stops have more irregular terrain, in the form of pebbly and rocky beaches.

Level and Audience

Fundamental. The course is intended for junior-mid level geoscientists who are working in exploration as well as development and want a broad overview of key petroleum systems concepts or the chance to revise the key themes. The course would also be of value to reservoir engineers wanting to appreciate the role of, and subsurface data analysed by, the geological team.

Objectives

You will learn to:

  1. Understand the elements required in a working petroleum system and the concept of play analysis.
  2. Create play fairways maps based on fieldwork and published data.
  3. Examine the process of prospect evaluation and volumetric assessment including probability of success.
  4. Rank prospects based on the different play elements.
  5. Perform simple resource assessment and exploration risk analysis.
  6. Identify source rocks, how they form and what makes a good source rock.
  7. Compare different reservoir rocks, including sandstones and chalk, to work out how they were deposited and what controls the key reservoir properties of porosity and permeability at different scales.
  8. Describe different seals and flow barriers both above and within the reservoir intervals.
  9. Work with different types of subsurface data, as part of a team, and measure what scale of information they provide e.g. seismic, well logs, core, well tests, production tests.
  10. Analyse a series of local prospects and establish the geological chance of success.
  11. Assess the stages of a subsurface project from exploration through to development and production.
  12. Appreciate the different drilling and production technology in relation to the different reservoir types and project requirements.

Course Content

Itinerary

Day 0 – Arrival at Weymouth

  • Evening Course Introduction and Safety Briefing

Overnight Weymouth

Day 1 – Triassic depositional systems and reservoir rocks

  • Field stop 1: Ladram Bay – Triassic sandstones (reservoir)
  • Exercise – fluvial architecture and reservoir properties
  • Field stop 2: Sidmouth – Triassic sandbody types and heterogeneity (reservoir)
  • Field stop 3: Budleigh Salterton – coarse-grained facies (reservoir – fluvial and aeolian)
  • Exercise – depositional systems and faulting

Overnight Weymouth

Day 2 – Triassic seals and Jurassic reservoir rocks

  • Lecture: Review of Day 1 – preview Day 2
  • Field stop 1: Branscombe – Triassic mudstones and salt (seals and salt structures)
  • Field stop 2: West Bay – Middle Jurassic Bridport sandstones (reservoir)-Exercise – reservoir properties, baffles and barriers, cementation
  • Classroom exercise: gross depositional maps

Overnight Weymouth

Day 3 – Upper Jurassic and Cretaceous reservoir rocks

  • Lecture: Review of Day 2 – preview Day 3
  • Field stop 1: Osmington Mills – Bencliff Grit (reservoir and carrier bed/seep)
  • Field stop 2: Durdle Door view and Lulworth Cove – Chalk and Greensand (reservoirs and structures)

Overnight Weymouth

Day 4 – Source rocks

  • Lecture: Review of Day 3 – preview Day 4
  • Field stop 1: Kimmeridge Bay – Kimmeridge Clay (source rock and seal)
  • Kimmeridge Museum visit – palaeontology of the Jurassic Coast
  • Field stop 2: Lyme Regis – Lias (source rock)
  • Lyme Regis fossil shop

Overnight Weymouth

Day 5 – Oilfields and Basin summary 

  • Lecture: Review of Day 4 – preview Day 5
  • Classroom exercise: Source kitchen analysis and migration pathways
  • Visit to Wytch Farm (viewpoint and gathering station) and then Kimmeridge Bay oilfield
  • Field stop: Isle of Portland – basin view point

Overnight Weymouth

Day 6

  • Departure and travel home

Integrating Teams on the Rocks of the Wessex Basin, Dorset, UK (G056)

Tutor(s)

Jonathan Evans: GeoLogica

Overview

Proper integration of teams and disciplines is increasingly important in the modern energy industry. Ensuring all staff, technical, managerial and non-technical, understand the roles, concepts and language used by various disciplines as well as their requirements for data is critical for cooperation, collaboration and business success. This short course uses field observations and discussion at outcrops within the Wessex Basin to facilitate a deeper understanding of others’ roles as well as providing a refresher/reminder of the fundamental importance of rocks and the data they can provide to energy provision. The Wessex Basin provides a classic example of a working petroleum system with easily accessible outcrops to illustrate source rocks, reservoirs and trapping structures. In addition, the area also provides insights into new energy and carbon reduction methods that rely on a solid understanding of the subsurface.

Duration and Logistics

A 2-day field course in Dorset. For in-house provision the course can be extended or shortened depending on a company’s requirements.

Exertion Level

his class requires an EASY exertion level. Hikes are generally 1-2 km in length, on sandy and rocky beaches, coastal paths and with some irregular terrain.

Level and Audience

The level of the trip can be tailored to cater for the target audience: subsurface teams, integrated project teams or raising awareness for a generalist audience.

Objectives

Your team will learn to:

  1. Appreciate what elements are required for a working Petroleum System.
  2. Identify source rocks, how they form and what makes a good source rock.
  3. Compare different reservoir rocks, including sandstones and chalk, to work out how they were deposited and what controls the key reservoir properties of porosity and permeability at different scales.
  4. Understand what different types of subsurface data measure and what scale of information they provide e.g. seismic, well logs, core, well tests, production tests.
  5. Describe different seals both above and within the reservoir intervals.
  6. Understand the Petroleum Geology of the Wessex Basin including the giant Wytch Farm oilfield.

Course Content

This two-day trip will illustrate the petroleum geology of the Wessex Basin using the outcrops of the Jurassic Coast of Devon and Dorset. We will see source rocks, reservoirs, caprocks and different trapping structures and also have chance to find some fossils.

Itinerary

The trip can be run starting and finishing in Exeter or as a “one way” trip from Poole to Exeter (or vice versa) with an overnight stay in Lyme Regis or Bridport.

Teams may want to spend a night in a hotel (Poole or Exeter) before Day 1 and/or to add a day before or after the trip for work-related off-site meetings or other team-building activities.

Day 1

Visit outcrops of the:

  • Kimmeridge Clay (Source rock and seal) – Kimmeridge Bay
  • Chalk and Greensand (reservoirs & structures) – Lulworth Cove
  • Lunch at the Smugglers Inn, Osmington
  • Bencliff Grit (reservoir and carrier bed/seep) – Osmington Mills
  • Bridport Sands (Reservoir)

Overnight in Exeter

Day 2

Visit outcrops of the:

  • Exmouth Sandstone (reservoir, faults and seals) – Orcombe Point
  • Otter Sandstone (reservoir and seals) – Ladram Bay
  • Lunch at Otterton
  • Blue Lias (Source Rock & Fossils) – Lyme Regis
  • Visit to Wytch Farm (gathering station viewpoint and Godlingston viewpoint)

Depart

Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (E519)

Tutor(s)

Matthew Jackson: Chair in Geological Fluid Dynamics, Imperial College London

Overview

This course covers all subsurface aspects of Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES) and includes a brief overview of surface engineering and infrastructure requirements. The course includes an introduction to ATES, aquifer characterization for ATES, including geological and petrophysical considerations, ATES performance prediction, including modelling and simulation, and engineering considerations, including ATES system management and optimization.

Duration and Logistics

Classroom version: A 3-day course comprising a mix of lectures, case studies and exercises. The manual will be provided in digital format and participants will be required to bring a laptop or tablet computer to follow the lectures and exercises.

Virtual version: Five 3.5-hour interactive online sessions presented over 5 days (mornings in North America and afternoons in Europe). A digital manual exercise will be distributed to participants before the course. Some reading and exercises are to be completed by participants off-line.

Level and Audience

Intermediate to advanced. The course is relevant to geoscientists and engineers and is intended for recent graduates and professionals with experience of, or a background in, a related subsurface geoscience or engineering area.

Objectives

You will learn to:

  1. Describe the underlying principles of ATES and the context of its deployment worldwide.
  2. Evaluate the properties of an aquifer for ATES deployment.
  3. Perform aquifer characterization for ATES.
  4. Appreciate the engineering considerations for efficient and sustainable ATES operation.
  5. Understand modelling and simulation of ATES.
  6. Optimize single and multiple ATES projects.
  7. Evaluate surface infrastructure requirements and operation.
  8. Review the regulatory considerations for deployment and operation.

Course Content

This course will focus on the subsurface geoscience and engineering considerations for ATES.

Session 1: Introduction to ATES – definitions and international context

  • Basic requirements for ATES
  • Types of ATES systems and global projects
  • Basic principles of operation
  • Characterizing ATES efficiency and operation
  • Case study
  • Exercise

 

Session 2: Aquifer characterization for ATES

  • Aquifer characterization for ATES
  • Mass and heat transfer
  • Scales of characterization
  • Porosity
  • Concept of representative pore volume
  • Permeability
  • Thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity
  • Exercise

Session 3: Modelling and simulation of ATES

  • Mass and heat transfer in aquifers
  • Rock properties and data acquisition
  • Modelling the reservoir
  • Geological modelling of ATES
  • Numerical simulation

Session 4: Engineering ATES deployment and operation

  • Pumping tests
  • Thermal response tests
  • System design
  • Sustainable operation
  • Impacts on groundwater
  • Exercise

Session 5: Surface facilities, regulatory issues and economic considerations

  • Positive attributes and barriers to ATES
  • Strategies to overcome barriers
  • Surface facilities
  • Economic considerations
  • Decarbonization value
  • Exercise

 

 

Best Practices in Pore Pressure and Fracture Pressure Prediction (V043)

Tutor(s)

Richard Swarbrick: Manager, Swarbrick GeoPressure

Overview

This course presents best practices in how data and standard techniques are combined to generate meaningful pore pressure (PP) and fracture pressure (FG) estimates from log, seismic and drilling data, and to use them to develop pre-drill predictions. The limitations are addressed, along with common pitfalls, leading to an understanding of the uncertainty and risk associated with PP and FG prediction.

The course begins by showing the types and reliability of subsurface data used to inform current knowledge, which will also calibrate PP and FG predictions at a remote location. Standard approaches to PP and FG prediction techniques are taught, with careful attention to where these have limitations on account of subsurface environment (thermal, tectonic) and data quality. A new approach to PP prediction using shales is taught as an independent guide to expected PP, especially valuable where only seismic data are available. Prediction of FG is taught by showing how to determine overburden stress and apply standard relationships, including new approaches with PP-stress coupling.

Duration and Logistics

Classroom version: A 2-day classroom course comprising a mix of lectures and discussion (90%) and exercises (10%). The manual will be provided in digital format, and participants will be required to bring a laptop or tablet computer to follow the lectures and exercises.

Virtual version: Four 3.5-hour interactive online sessions presented over 2 to 4 days (mornings in North America and afternoons in Europe). A digital manual and exercise materials will be distributed to participants before the course. Some reading and several exercises are to be completed by participants off-line.

Level and Audience

Intermediate. Intended for exploration and development geoscientists, petrophysicists, operations staff and drilling engineers. Familiarity with oilfield data and drilling practices is required. Experience shows that mixed classes of geoscientists and engineers benefit particularly from the discussions and sharing of approaches in this multi-disciplinary area of work.

Objectives

You will learn to:

  1. Distinguish the different types and quality of data that populate pressure-depth and EMW-depth plots for display of pressure predictions and calibration data in well planning.
  2. Use best practice to create PP estimations and predictions from seismic, log and drilling data using standard porosity-based techniques, and from modelling geological systems.
  3. Use best practice to create FG estimations and predictions by generating an overburden and establishing its relationship with FG and PP.
  4. Communicate Min-Expected-Max predictions effectively to both geoscience and engineering/operations staff involved in well planning.

Course Content

Session 1

  • Introduction
  • Pressure-depth and EMW-depth plots
  • Geological context for pressure regimes

Session 2

  • Methods for estimation and prediction of PP using:
    • seismic velocities
    • wireline and drilling-conveyed log data
    • drilling including real-time monitoring
    • modelling

Session 3

  • Best practice PP prediction
  • Methods of estimation and prediction of FG
  • PP – FG coupling and new methodology for FG
  • Best practice for FG

Session 4

  • Well planning – assessing a range of predictions (Min to Max)
  • Global examples
  • Uncertainty and risk

Exercises of varied duration and complexity are given throughout the course to consolidate and improve participants’ learning.

Working With Unconventional Petroleum Systems (G032)

Tutor(s)

Andy Pepper: Managing Director, This Is Petroleum, LLC

Overview

This course teaches how to use Petroleum Systems Analysis (regional geology, geochemistry and petroleum systems modeling) to evaluate unconventional/resource play reservoirs. The subject matter ranges from deposition of organic matter in the source rock (generation, expulsion, migration and accumulation processes leading to saturation of the reservoir), to the prediction of reservoir and produced fluid properties and value. This class will equip geologists and engineers with advanced capabilities to: identify, map and evaluate new plays; identify storage and production sweet spots in plays; and identify vertical/by-passed storage and production sweet spots to optimize landing zones in new and existing plays.

Duration and Logistics

Classroom version: 5 days, a mix of lectures (75%) and quizzes/exercises (25%). The manual will be provided in digital format and participants will be required to bring a laptop or tablet computer to follow the lectures and exercises.

Virtual version: Five 4-hour interactive online sessions presented over 5 days (mornings in North America and afternoons in Europe), including a mix of lectures (75%) and quizzes/exercises (10%). A digital manual and hard-copy exercise materials will be distributed to participants before the course.

Level and Audience

Advanced. Intended for exploration, exploitation and production geoscientists, reservoir and completion engineers and managers who need to understand how the petroleum system works to determine fluid saturation and composition in resource plays. A basic familiarity with resource plays is assumed.

Objectives

You will learn to:

  1. Understand modern approaches to describing source rocks: their expulsion potential and distribution.
  2. Establish the link between organic matter and petroleum: the organofacies scheme and the geochemistry and composition of oil and gas.
  3. Link the burial and thermal histories of onshore/exhumed sedimentary basins to the temperature and pressure history of the source bed/reservoir.
  4. Understand how organic matter quality kinetics control petroleum volumes and compositions expelled from organic matter.
  5. Understand the roles of pressure and capillarity in creating an unconventional reservoir: that petroleum migration and accumulation are flip sides of the same coin, controlling reservoir saturation patterns.
  6. Evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of current core analysis techniques and use geochemical concepts to differentiate between potentially producible fluid vs immobile sorbed petroleum in organic-rich reservoirs.
  7. Identify sweet spots in well rate performance from a pressure and fluid perspective, and fluid prediction using advanced pyrolysis methods in well samples.
  8. Understand the properties of produced fluids that contribute to/detract from well stream value.

Course Content

This class uses modern and some all-new petroleum systems (geochemistry and thermal/fluid flow modeling) approaches, including modeling of petroleum saturation and composition in unconventional reservoirs. Prior knowledge of geochemistry and basin modeling is not required – although the class is advanced it contains the foundational information needed for a geoscientist or engineer to understand the “unconventional” petroleum system, building upon geology and reservoir engineering first principles. The class is primarily geological but is intended also to help reservoir engineers seeking to understand the fundamentals of unconventional reservoir performance.

Topics

Charge: Source Rock Potential – “The Feedstock”

  • Measurements of organic richness and potential.
  • How organic matter (OM) in source rocks is deposited: variations in distribution, thickness, organic carbon content and organic matter type (organofacies).
  • How source rock volumetric potential and system gas/oil potential can be quantified (Ultimate Expellable Potential).

Charge: “Making the Petroleum”

  • Modeling generation of petroleum from, and sorption in, OM.
  • Understanding thermal stress levels for oil and gas generation from, and cracking of sorbed oil to gas in, OM.
  • Prediction of petroleum composition expelled from OM – gas-oil ratio (GOR).

Charge: “Moving the Petroleum”

  • Sorbed vs fluid petroleum phases in OM-rich rocks.
  • Petroleum fluid phase behavior.
  • Migration/saturation of the fluid phase within, and adjacent to, the source bed.
  • Migration into the conventional fluid system – the “flip side” of unconventional reservoir storage.

Trap: Seal and Column “Building the Petroleum Saturation”

  • Controls on pressure evolution in sedimentary basins.
  • Controls on saturation in reservoir rocks: hydrodynamics, buoyancy, capillary entry pressure and interfacial tension.
  • Recognizing the unconventional reservoir as a petroleum system: source, reservoir and seal.
  • Capillary pressure and architecture of saturation patterns in unconventional reservoirs.

Reservoir: Storage “Storing the Petroleum”

  • “Unconventional” core measurements of porosity and saturation – effects of Dean-Stark cleaning.
  • Measuring and modeling sorbed vs mobile fluid phase saturations.
  • Profiles of fluid phase saturation in “classic” unconventional petroleum plays.
  • Fluid phase properties: predicting GOR and Formation Volume Factor.
  • Petroleum-in-Place sweet-spot logging and mapping – Permian Basin Wolfcamp example.

Reservoir: Deliverability “Producing the Petroleum”

  • Pressure – a key limitation on delta-P.
  • Modeling fluid viscosity in unconventional reservoir fluids.
  • Petroleum deliverability/rate sweet-spot logging and mapping – Permian Basin Wolfcamp example.

Product: “Valuing the Petroleum”

  • Properties of the produced liquid stream that affect sales value.
  • Properties of the produced gas stream that affect sales value.