World-class training for the modern energy industry

CCS Reservoir Geology at Outcrop: Rotliegend and Bunter/Sherwood Sandstones, Cumbria and NW Cheshire (E578)

Tutor(s)

Richard Worden: Professor in the Department of Earth Ocean and Ecological Sciences, University of Liverpool, UK

Overview

This course is intended to give subsurface teams the opportunity to see some of the rocks at outcrop that they are planning to use as CO2 storage sites. Visiting these outcrops will allow subsurface teams, who generally use logs and limited core to build models, the opportunity to see the larger and smaller scale architecture of the rocks they are working on. We will also discuss post-depositional changes to their sandstones, including petrophysical and geomechanical property evolution (pre- and post-CO2 injection), and some of the risks associated with developing saline aquifers and depleted gas fields as CO2 storage sites in these sandstones.

Duration and Logistics

A 5-day field course comprising a mix of field activities in NW England (Cumbria, Cheshire and Merseyside) with classroom lecture sessions and discussions.

Exertion Level

This class requires a MODERATE exertion level. Field locations are mainly relatively easy walks from road access points, although there may be some scrambling over coastal boulders and walking down and up tide-dependent coastal access paths.

Level and Audience

Intermediate. This course is intended for geoscience and engineering professionals working in CCS projects, especially those with an active interest in the Permian Rotliegend and Triassic Bunter/Sherwood Sandstones.

Objectives

You will learn to:

  1. Characterize the main depositional features that influence Permian Sandstone (Rotliegend) reservoir properties and CCS reservoir development and likely performance.
  2. Assess the main diagenetic features that influence Permian Sandstone (Rotliegend) reservoir properties and CCS reservoir development and likely performance.
  3. Appraise the main depositional features that influence Triassic Sandstone (Bunter/Sherwood) reservoir properties and CCS reservoir development and likely performance.
  4. Examine the main diagenetic features that influence Triassic Sandstone (Bunter/Sherwood) reservoir properties and CCS reservoir development and likely performance.
  5. Evaluate the role of depositional and diagenetic processes in influencing top-seal caprock performance in CCS reservoirs.

Course Content

The course will incorporate field visits to East and West Cumbria (Vale of Eden and St Bees Head) and NW Cheshire/Merseyside (Hilbre, Thursaston, Helsby, Beeston, Daresbury). There will also be formal classroom presentations about what the class has seen/will see and its relevance to Permian (Rotliegend) and Triassic (Sherwood and Bunter) CCS reservoir, with consideration and possible visits to overlying mudstone caprocks (Permian: St Bees Shale/Zechstein; Triassic: Mercia Mudsone/Haisborough Gp).

Itinerary (tbc based on availability of sites)

Day 1

  • Arrive at Armathwaite (Vale of Eden hotel if available)
  • Evening presentations on the outcrop (field) and subsurface geology of the Lower Permian sandstones (Rotliegend equivalent)

Day 2
Field visits: Vale of Eden

  • Travel to Ravenglass (Pennington hotel if available)
  • Evening presentations on the outcrop (field) and subsurface geology of the Upper Permian and the Lower part of the Sherwood Sandstones (Bunter equivalent)

Day 3
Field visits: Ravenglass and north of St Bees Head (highly tide dependent access to coastal outcrops)

  • Travel to North Cheshire (North Cheshire Hotel if available)

Day 4
Field visits: Upper Sherwood Sandstone, possibly at Hilbre, West Kirby or similar (Ormskirk Fm, equivalent of Upper Bunter)

  • Travel to Liverpool/Wirral and North Cheshire
  • Possible evening presentation on geology of depleted gas fields and saline aquifers in Triassic sandstones

Day 5
Field visits: Upper Sherwood Sandstone and possibly lowermost Mercia Mudstone Group in NW England, outcrops at Helsby, Beeston, Daresbury or even Altrincham

  • Check out of Chester hotel
  • Course concludes

 

Lessons Learned from Carbon Capture and Storage Projects to Date (E577)

Tutor(s)

Matthew Healey: Pace CCS

Overview

This course is designed to provide information vital to anyone involved with CCS project design. It will provide an introduction to CCS design with a focus on sharing lessons learned from CCS projects in design and operation today. Technical analysis, useful references and practical solutions will be provided.

Duration and Logistics

A 1-day in-person classroom course. An electronic copy of the manual will be provided by the tutor at the end of the course.

Level and Audience

Advanced. This course is suitable for all management and technical staff engaged in carbon capture and storage design and operations. It will provide clear, actionable, technical information that will be immediately applicable to CCS project design.

Objectives

You will learn to:

  1. Understand the key elements in the CCS chain, from capture to disposal.
  2. Understand the unique challenges faced by CCS, and how these are different from oil and gas, CO2-EOR and midstream projects, with primary reference to project experience and lessons learned.
  3. Apply fundamentals of CO2 design, including thermodynamics, chemical reactions, carbon capture, dehydration and compositional control.
  4. Understand the risk to CCS pipeline and well integrity due to corrosion, with primary reference to project experience and lessons learned.
  5. Review the behavior of CO2 and challenges associated with very low temperatures during operation, with primary reference to project experience and lessons learned.
  6. Understand the challenges related to design in order to manage planned and unplanned CO2 releases to atmosphere from CCS projects, with primary reference to project experience and lessons learned.
  7. Review the key commercial drivers and risks for CCS that inform design, and understand how these are managed, with primary reference to project experience and lessons learned.
  8. Review lessons learned from application of project management and organizational processes to CCS deliver teams, in order to understand how best to deliver CCS project design and execution.

Course Content

The global CCS industry in the context of global climate change

  • Climate change (for engineers)
  • Global decarbonization: progress so far
  • The CCS value chain
  • CCS and energy transition: future outlook
  • Global CCS experience and summary of lessons learned

CCS fundamentals

  • The full chain, from capture to storage
  • DAC and CO2 utilization
  • The CCS industrial hub
  • Case study: Porthos CCS
  • Case study: Baton Rouge corridor CCS
  • Energy transition: how CCS enables green energy
  • CO2 transport by ship and road tanker
  • Case study: Northern Lights CCS
  • Case study: Greensand CCS

Integrity risks for CCS projects

  • Technical need-to-knows (aka the fun bit): thermodynamics, hydraulics, physical behavior and chemical reactions, etc.
  • Corrosion risk on CCS projects
  • Case study: Gorgon LNG CCS
  • Case study: Aramis CCS
  • Low temperatures on CCS projects
  • Case study: DeepC CCS
  • Case study: HyNet CCS
  • CO2 venting and unplanned releases
  • Case study: venting an onshore CO2 pipeline and injection wells
  • Case study: historical CO2 releases and other incidents

Lessons learned: how to deliver a good CCS project

  • Commercial drivers: opportunities and challenges
  • Case study: Quest CCS
  • Risk management
  • Emerging technologies
  • The CCS industry in 2050

Q&A

Geochemical effects of CO2 on Reservoir, Seals and Engineered Environments during CCS (E544)

Tutor(s)

Richard Worden, Professor in the Department of Earth Ocean and Ecological Sciences, University of Liverpool, UK

Overview

The geochemistry of saline aquifers, depleted oil/gas fields in the context of CO2, and other waste gas, injection is considered. The reactions of CO2 with different reservoir rocks and top-seals, and their constituent minerals, and the cement and metal work used in the construction of wells are central to this course. The course includes reference to numerous CCS and CO2-EOR case studies, CCS-pilot sites, experiments, geochemical modelling, reaction-transport modelling, monitoring of CCS sites, microbiological processes in CCS systems, and the risk of halite scale formation.

Duration and Logistics

Classroom version: A 1.5-day course comprising a mix of lectures, case studies and exercises. The manual will be provided in digital format and participants will be required to bring a laptop or tablet computer to follow the lectures and exercises.

Virtual version: Three 3.5-hour interactive online sessions presented over 3 days (mornings in North America and afternoons in Europe). Digital course notes and exercise materials will be distributed to participants before the course. Exercises will be used throughout the course; these will include calculations, largely based on spreadsheets. Quizzes will be used to test knowledge development.

Level and Audience

Advanced. The course is largely aimed at specialist geoscientists, but petroleum engineers and petrophysicists who are working on, or plan to work on, CCS projects will also find the course instructive. A foundation knowledge of geochemistry is assumed.

Objectives

You will learn to:

  1. Appraise the types and sources of information needed to define geochemical aspects of CCS sites.
  2. Evaluate the role of CO2 pressure in influencing reactions at CCS sites.
  3. Assess the information that can be gathered from natural analogues of CCS projects.
  4. Evaluate the role of composition of the injected gas (role of contaminants) in influencing reactions at CCS sites.
  5. Gauge the role of water composition in influencing reactions at CCS sites.
  6. Characterize the role of mineral composition (rock type) in influencing reactions at CCS sites.
  7. Manage examples of mineral dissolution in CCS systems.
  8. Predict possible examples of mineral precipitation in CCS systems.
  9. Gauge CO2 interaction with cements and pipes used in well completions.
  10. Assess how experimental simulation, geochemical reaction modelling and reaction transport modelling can help predict if dissolution or precipitation will occur.
  11. Validate the links between geochemical processes and geomechanical and petrophysical properties in CCS systems.
  12. Use geochemical tracers to track process in CCS systems.
  13. Characterize the microbiological processes that may occur at CCS sites.
  14. Predict the geochemical formation damage in CCS.
  15. Quantify the role of CCS in basalt hosts in comparison to sedimentary hosts.

Course Content

  1. Definitions, sources of geochemical information and injected gas compositions
    • Topic 1 – Defining the geochemistry of CCS
    • Topic 2 – The sources of information that inform us about geochemical processes involved in CCS
    • Topic 3 – What gases will be injected into the subsurface during CCS
  2. Forms of CO2 in the subsurface and dissolution of CO2
    • Topic 1 – CO2 phase behavior
    • Topic 2 – Forms of CO2 in the subsurface
    • Topic 3 – Solubility and dissolution of CO2
  3. Mineral dissolution and precipitation processes during CCS
    • Topic 1 – Under what circumstances and how mineral dissolution occurs following the injection of CO2 and contaminant gases
    • Topic 2 – Under what circumstances and how mineral precipitation occurs following the injection of CO2 and contaminant gases
    • Topic 3 – The driving force behind dissolution and precipitation due to CO2 injection
    • Topic 4 – Reaction kinetics of dissolution and precipitation reactions due to CO2 injection
  4. Sandstone reservoirs and CCS geochemistry
    • Topic 1 – Introduction to sandstone mineralogy and texture
    • Topic 2 – Evidence that sandstones can undergo dissolution during CCS
    • Topic 3 – Evidence that minerals may precipitate during sandstone CCS
    • Topic 4 – The role of acid gas contamination on sandstone geochemical processes
    • Topic 5 – Review and summary of the effects of dissolution and precipitation on sandstone rock properties
  5. Carbonate reservoirs and CCS geochemistry
    • Topic 1 – Introduction to carbonate mineralogy and texture
    • Topic 2 – Evidence that carbonates can undergo dissolution during CCS
    • Topic 3 – Evidence that minerals may precipitate during carbonate CCS
    • Topic 4 – The role of acid gas contamination on carbonate geochemical processes
    • Topic 5 – Review and summary of the effects of dissolution and precipitation on carbonate rock properties
  6. Low permeability rocks and CCS geochemistry
    • Topic 1 – Introduction to the mineralogy and texture of low-permeability top-seals and fault-seals
    • Topic 2 – Evidence that top-seals may undergo reaction during CCS
    • Topic 3 – Effects of CCS reactions on top-seal properties
    • Topic 4 – Evidence that fault-seals may undergo reaction during CCS
    • Topic 5 – Effects of CCS reactions on fault-seal properties
  7. The well environment, corrosion leakage and CCS geochemistry
    • Topic 1 – Leakage risks associated with cement and pipe corrosion
    • Topic 2 – Metal-CO2 (and contaminant gases) corrosion processes
    • Topic 3 – Cement-CO2 (and contaminant gases) corrosion processes
  8. CCS monitoring using geochemical tracers and the effect of CCS on microbial processes
    • Topic 1 – Geochemical tracers for CCS (natural and synthetic)
    • Topic 2 – Potential use of geochemical tracers in CO2 storage sites
    • Topic 3 – Microbial processes in CO2 storage sites
  9. Halite and other geochemical formation damage and basalt-hosted CCS
    • Topic 1 – Summary of types of formation damage in CCS projects
    • Topic 2 – Halite growth in saline aquifers and reduced CO2 injectivity
    • Topic 3 – CO2 storage in basalt: summary of the CarbFix project
    • Topic 4 – Why solid sequestration of CO2 occurs in basalt and contrast to geochemical processes sedimentary hosts for CO2
    • Topic 5 – Summary of the topics covered in the geochemistry of CCS

Seals, Containment and Risk for CCS and Hydrogen Storage (E570)

Tutor(s)

Richard Swarbrick: Manager, Swarbrick GeoPressure

Overview

This course examines the nature and properties of seals as they relate to containment for permanent storage of CO2 and cyclical storage of hydrogen and/or compressed air. The course will provide a grounding in the geomechanics of seals and how seals and their properties are created in the subsurface. While most data and analysis relating to seals has been acquired from and applied to the containment of oil and gas, this course will show how such data can be applied to CCS and gas storage. Particular attention will be given to the different sealing requirements of CO2 and hydrogen relative to oil/gas and water.

Duration and Logistics

Classroom version: A 2-day course comprising a mix of lectures, case studies and exercises. The manual will be provided in digital format and participants will be required to bring a laptop or tablet computer to follow the lectures and exercises.

Virtual version: Four 3.5-hour interactive online sessions presented over 2 or 4 days comprising a mix of lectures and exercises. The course manual will be provided in digital format.

Level and Audience

Advanced. This course is aimed at geoscientists and engineers working in energy transition with responsibility for projects to assess and manage gas storage

Objectives

You will learn to:

  1. Evaluate the nature of containment seals and their properties in the deep earth (>1km/0.62 miles below surface).
  2. Apply knowledge of seal integrity to estimates of column heights and associated storage volumes.
  3. Assess the concepts of seal integrity and how to predict risk of seal breach / failure.
  4. Appraise current knowledge of seal behaviour.
  5. Manage the requirements for permanent CO2 storage using CCS with short-term / cyclic storage for hydrogen / air.
  6. Characterize data requirements and limitations to assess seal integrity and risk (mainly sourced from oil / gas boreholes).
  7. Evaluate different trapping requirements for gas storage (currently data-poor) relative to oil / gas (historically data-rich).

Course Content

Sessions 1 and 2

  • Objectives and overview of seals in context of CO2 and hydrogen / compressed air
  • Containment – membrane seals: principles and relationship with gas column height and storage volume
  • Containment – hydraulic seals: principles and relationship to regional and local stress fields; difference between regional top seal and fault seal behaviour
  • Geomechanics of seals
  • Rock type and rock properties that make satisfactory seals
  • Seal integrity: relationships between rocks and fluid stresses; identification of seals, including use of pore fluid pressure; evidence of seal failure; and timescales of sealing contrasting geological and human timescales
  • Seal capacity: modelling seal behaviour; mechanical earth models; and relationship with storage volumes
  • Seal failure: failure criteria and migration mitigation

Sessions 3 and 4

  • Data used to identify seals, including knowledge of rock properties. Use of borehole and seismic data, and data that can be used for calibration of earth models
  • Seal risk – safe operating limits: regulatory frameworks and public perception
  • Seal risk case study
  • CCS – saline aquifers and case studies
  • CCS – depleted fields and case studies
  • Hydrogen (and compressed air) storage and case studies
  • Many sessions include short exercises to emphasise learnings

Carbon Capture and Storage: Legal, Regulatory, Finance and Public Acceptance Aspects (E566)

Tutor(s)

Professor Mike Stephenson: Stephenson Geoscience Consulting

Overview

Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is a new technology that has a vital place within global efforts to decarbonise. It has a unique set of challenges, opportunities and risks to be understood and accommodated within appropriate legal, regulatory, and social and public licence frameworks. The course will provide up to date and relevant information to help in understanding opportunities and in managing risk. The course will cover: the role of CCS within a decarbonised energy system; risks of capture, transport and storage; aspects of monitoring; the importance of test and demonstration sites; legal and regulatory; finance; and public acceptance and social licence.

Duration and Logistics

Classroom version: A 1-day course comprising a mix of lectures, case studies and exercises. The manual will be provided in digital format and participants will be required to bring a laptop or tablet computer to follow the lectures and exercises.

Virtual version: Two 3.5-hour interactive online sessions presented over 2 days (mornings in North America and afternoons in Europe). A digital manual will be distributed to participants before the course, which will be a mix of lectures and exercises.

Level and Audience

Fundamental. This course will cater for in-company legal specialists, project managers, marketing and communications specialists; as well as planners and environmental scientists in regulatory roles in regions considering the development of CCS.

Objectives

You will learn to:

  1. Understand the place of CCS within a decarbonized energy system.
  2. Demonstrate the basics of the science and risk in capture, transport and storage.
  3. Illustrate the role of monitoring and MMV (Measurement, Monitoring and Verification).
  4. Examine how legal and regulatory frameworks respond to the challenges of CCS.
  5. Establish how CCS could be financed.
  6. Relate to and understand public opinion and social licence in relation to CCS.

Course Content

  1. CCS global state of play
    • CCS readiness levels for storage and regulation
    • Global overview of CCS projects
    • Role of CCS in the energy system

Exercise- Place of CCS in energy: model your own energy system (using the DECC 2050 calculator: http://2050-calculator-tool.decc.gov.uk/#/home)

  1. Science and risks of capture, transport and storage
    • Capture technology, challenges and risks
    • Transport (pipelines) challenges, risks and regulation focussing on UK HSE materials
    • Storage
      • Types of storage
      • Depleted fields
      • Saline aquifers
      • Long term fate
      • Storage space calculation
  2. Aspects of monitoring and MMV (Measurement, monitoring and verification)
    • How likely is leakage
    • Impacts of leakage
    • Detecting leak
    • Remediating leaks
  3. Importance of test and demonstration sites
    • Examples of test and demonstration sites
    • Uses in regulation and public acceptance
  4. Legal and regulatory
    • Characteristics of a good legal/regulatory regime
    • Challenges of legal/regulatory in CCS
      • Capture
      • Transport
      • Storage, long term liability and site closure
    • Roles of regulators/authorities in the CCS Chain
    • Stakeholder maps

Exercise – building a stakeholder framework/model for a fictitious CCS project

    • Planning

Exercise – discussion of complex spatial planning for multiple net zero uses in the North Sea

  1. Finance
    • Main sources of income
    • CCS hub business models
  2. Public perception and social licence
    • Public attitudes to subsurface and energy
    • Concept of social licence
    • Perception of risk and public mental models
    • Different publics
    • Otway – public perception what went right?

Exercise – Barendrecht – what went wrong?

 Geomodelling for CO2 Storage (E560)

Tutor(s)

Professor Matthew Jackson, Imperial College London

Overview

This course provides an overview of all subsurface aspects of geomodelling relevant to CO2 storage. The course includes an introduction to the principles and practice of geomodelling; reservoir characterization for CO2 storage, including geological, geophysical and petrophysical considerations; methods used to produce 3-D geomodels; approaches to uncertainty characterization and quantification; and an overview of available software tools. The course does not provide hands-on training in these software tools, but rather provides the background understanding for software tool selection and associated training from vendor(s). The concepts and methods are illustrated using numerous practical examples of geomodelling studies.

Duration and Logistics

Classroom version: A 3-day course comprising a mix of lectures, case studies and exercises. The manual will be provided in digital format and participants will be required to bring a laptop or tablet computer to follow the lectures and exercises.

Virtual version: Five 3.5-hour interactive online sessions presented over 5 days (mornings in North America and afternoons in Europe). A digital manual and exercise materials will be distributed to participants before the course. Some reading and exercises are to be completed by participants off-line.

Level and Audience

Advanced. The course is intended for professionals with experience of, or background in, a related subsurface geoscience area and those directly working on CO2 storage projects.

Objectives

You will learn to:

  1. Characterize the underlying aims and concepts of ‘fit for purpose’ reservoir geomodelling.
  2. Prepare different types and associated applications of geomodels for CO2 storage.
  3. Validate reservoir characterization data for CO2 storage, including geology, geophysics and petrophysics.
  4. Assess methods for quantitative 3-D geomodel construction, including advantages and disadvantages of each.
  5. Manage performance metrics for geomodels.
  6. Appraise the importance of, and methods for, quantitative uncertainty assessment.
  7. Rate the different software tools used for geomodelling.
  8. Evaluate practical examples of geomodelling for CO2 storage.

Course Content

Geomodels can play an important role in designing and planning CO2 storage projects, for locating and managing injection and offtake wells, and to interpret and integrate monitoring data. Geomodels for CO2 storage have different objectives and requirements from those designed for hydrocarbon production, reflecting the differing flow processes and the types and abundance of available data may also differ significantly. Approaches to model CO2 storage span the types and abundance of available data. Some modelling approaches have been inherited or ported from hydrocarbon reservoir modelling, others have roots in groundwater modelling or mineral resource modelling.

The course is divided into five sessions, with one session per day:

Session 1: Introduction to geomodelling for CO2 storage – what is ‘fit for purpose’?

Session 2: Storage reservoir characterization for geomodelling – what data do you need?

Session 3: Geomodelling methods – facies and petrophysics

Session 4: Handling uncertainty – model integration with different data sources

Session 5: Software tools and practical examples

The Fundamentals of Carbon Capture and Storage (E902)

Tutor(s)

Richard Worden: Professor in the Department of Earth Ocean and Ecological Sciences, University of Liverpool, UK

Overview

The aim of this course is to provide an overview of what carbon capture and storage is, how it works and its role in decarbonization and the energy transition.

Duration and Logistics

Classroom version: A half-day course comprising a mix of lectures, case studies and exercises. The manual will be provided in digital format and participants will be required to bring a laptop or tablet computer to follow the lectures and exercises.

Virtual version: One 3-hour interactive online session (a morning in North America and an afternoon in Europe). A digital manual and exercise materials will be distributed to participants before the course.

Level and Audience

Awareness. The course is aimed at non-technical staff and those who do not have a scientific background but want a basic introduction into the topic. The subject matter will be covered from very basic principles and be of interest to staff from a range of departments, including legal, graphics, administration and technical support.

Objectives

You will learn to:

  1. Understand what carbon capture and storage is.
  2. Appreciate why carbon capture and storage is needed to reduce emissions.
  3. Outline how carbon capture and storage works.
  4. Discuss carbon capture and storage project risks and uncertainties.

Course Content

This short course covers the key aspects of carbon capture and storage and will give participants a fundamental understanding of the role of this technology in the energy transition, including how it is possible to store carbon dioxide in the subsurface and what has been done so far on the global scale. Topics to be covered include:

  • What is carbon capture and storage?
  • What is underground that allows carbon dioxide to be stored?
  • How many carbon capture and storage projects are needed at the current rate of emission to cut greenhouse gas emissions?
  • How much carbon dioxide can be stored underground?
  • What happens to the carbon dioxide once it is placed underground?

Reservoir Characterization for Carbon Capture and Underground Storage, Devon and Dorset, UK (E556)

Tutor(s)

Professor Gary Hampson: Imperial College London, UK

Professor Matthew Jackson: Imperial College London, UK

Overview

This course provides a field-based overview of reservoir characterization relevant to carbon capture and underground storage (CCS) and focuses on widely exploited reservoir depositional environments and their associated heterogeneity. The course links geological heterogeneity observed in well-exposed outcrop analogues with flow and transport processes during CO2 injection and plume migration, and also discusses the characterization and modelling of heterogeneity using typical subsurface datasets. The concepts are illustrated using numerous practical examples.

Duration and Logistics

A 4-day field course with a combination of field activities and exercises, plus classroom sessions. A manual and exercise materials will be distributed to participants on the course. Transport is by small coach.

Level and Audience

Intermediate. The course is intended for professionals with experience of, or background in, a related subsurface geoscience area, and / or recent graduates in a relevant topic.

Exertion Level

This class requires an EASY exertion level. Field locations are mainly accessed by hikes of 1–2km (roughly 1 mile) across some irregular terrain, including sandy beaches, coastal paths and pebbly / rocky beaches.

Objectives

You will learn to:

  1. Describe and explain types of geological heterogeneity associated with reservoirs, storage units and aquifers developed in common depositional environments.
  2. Evaluate how these heterogeneities can be characterized and quantified in the subsurface and represented in static and dynamic reservoir models.
  3. Consider the impact of these heterogeneities on fluid flow and transport in the context of CO2 storage.
  4. Understand reservoir characterization requirements for the prediction of CCS.

Course Content

Subsurface reservoirs and aquifers have huge capacity and potential for CCS. Fluid flow and associated transport of species are central to plume migration and trapping efficiency. It is well known that geological heterogeneity plays a critical role in controlling flow and transport. Fit for purpose reservoir characterization is therefore essential to ensure reservoir behavior can be understood and predicted. However, fluid properties and flow behavior, and the types and abundance of subsurface data available for reservoir characterization, can differ widely for CCS projects. The course will link field observations with subsurface flow, transport and trapping mechanisms during CCS. Topics to be covered include:

  1. An overview of facies associated with fluvial, aeolian, lacustrine and shallow-marine clastic environments and shallow-marine carbonate depositional environments
  2. Types of heterogeneity associated with these facies
  3. Stratigraphic and structural controls on the distribution and organization of heterogeneity
  4. Types and scales of subsurface data available for reservoir characterization
  5. Strategies to capture key heterogeneities in reservoir models
  6. Effects of heterogeneity on fluid flow in the context of CCS

Outcrop exercises are used to demonstrate the topics listed above, and as a starting point for further discussion.

Itinerary (tbc based on availability of sites)

Day 0 – Arrival in Devon
At accommodation

  • Evening introduction and safety brief

Overnight in Exeter
Day 1
Field locations: Budleigh Salterton and Ladram Bay

  • Sherwood sandstone (Budleigh Salterton) – mixed fluvial and aeolian sandstones, faults
  • Sherwood sandstone (Ladram Bay) – fluvial sandstones

Overnight in Exeter
Day 2
Field locations: Seaton or Branscombe, Beer and West Bay

  • Mercia mudstone (Seaton or Branscombe) – lacustrine mudstones, seal
  • Chalk (Beer) – fine-grained carbonates
  • Bridport Sands (West Bay) – shallow-marine sandstones

Overnight in Weymouth
Day 3
Field locations: Isle of Portland

  • Portland limestone (Freshwater Bay, Isle of Portland) – limestones, evaporite seal (CCS analogue)

Overnight in Weymouth
Day 4
At accommodation

  • Wrap up

Departure and travel home

Carbon Capture – Reservoir Storage and Risk Elements: Insights from the Field, NE England (E550)

Tutor(s)

Richard Jones and colleagues: Geospatial Research Ltd and University of Durham, UK

Overview

This course is framed around demonstrating the principles of CO2 storage capacity and risk elements of a prospective CCS play. Starting from basic geoscience principles, the course focuses on reservoir capacity estimation, injectivity and containment risks. The principles will be illustrated using well-exposed outcrop examples from NE England including clastic reservoirs from a variety of depositional settings (typically Carboniferous, Permo-Triassic, or Jurassic), sealing lithologies (mudrocks and evaporites) and structural controls on reservoir connectivity and containment (fractures, juxtaposition and fault zone complexity).

Duration and Logistics

A 5-day field course with fieldwork and practical sessions supported by classroom lectures. The course will be based in the historic city of Durham in NE England with easy access to coastal and inland locations in the counties of Durham, Northumberland and Yorkshire.

Level and Audience

Fundamental: The course is intended for subsurface scientists, including geologists and engineers, with a knowledge of petroleum geoscience, who are working on or new to, CCS projects.

Exertion Level

The course requires an EASY exertion level. Outcrops include coastal outcrop sections and inland exposures all with easy access. There will be some walks along beaches and easy paths to get to the outcrops with a maximum distance of around 5km (3 miles) or less, elevations vary from sea level to up to 500m (1600 ft). Temperature variations in late spring and summer are typically between 10 and 25°C (50–80°F).

Objectives

You will learn to: 

  1. Characterize a variety of reservoir types (considering potential impacts of stratigraphic, depositional and structural heterogeneities, porosity and permeability) with respect to their suitability for carbon capture and storage.
  2. Estimate reservoir capacity through stratigraphic and structural analysis, and porosity estimation.
  3. Understand fluid transport parameters – injection/flow rate and reservoir permeability.
  4. Assess containment potential for CO2 (evaporitic and shale seals, faults and fractures).
  5. Evaluate fracture networks with respect to storage capacity, injection rates and containment risk.

Course Content

This course will focus on the assessment of reservoirs with the potential for carbon storage in the subsurface, with emphasis on identifying suitable prospects. Key risk elements will be discussed, including reservoir capacity, sustainable injection rates and seal integrity. There will be some evening sessions that address specific topics around the subsurface storage of CO2.

Please note: the course is designed to be broad in technical coverage but can be tailored to suit specific company needs, including increased focus on particular target reservoir units.

Itinerary
Day 1 – Arrive in Durham
Field work: Durham City north riverside sections

  • Introduction to the field area (including virtual outcrop models)
  • Lectures on the critical similarities and differences between CO2 and hydrocarbon behaviour in subsurface systems. Field course HSE briefing
  • Capacity estimation: reservoir geology

Day 2: Reservoir
Field work: Outcrops of the Carboniferous Stainmore

  • Formation capacity estimation and containment (faults)
  • Reservoir geology: sandstone reservoir heterogeneity, porosity and architecture

Field work: Howick foreshore

  • Compartmentalization risk: fault zone morphology

Field work: Inland outcrops near Rothbury, Fell Sandstone

  • Reservoir characterization for CO2 storage: reservoir heterogeneity, porosity and architecture, play fairways.

Day 3: Containment risk
Field work: Jurassic mudrocks and sandstones, Whitby, North Yorkshire, Saltwick Nab and/or Port Mulgrave

  • Containment and sealing lithologies and key characteristics (shales)
  • Fracture networks: low permeability mudrock fracture systems.

Field work: Possible visit to Boulby Potash Mine (also potential discussion of hydrogen storage)

Day 4: Seals
Field work: Zechstein evaporites of northeast Durham

  • Sealing lithologies and key characteristics (evaporites), fracture networks, reservoir complexity

Day 5: Putting it together!
Field work: Cullercoats and the 90 Fathom Fault Zone

  • Capacity estimation, injectivity, containment (faults)
  • Reservoir geology; fault zone morphology, reservoir compartmentalization
  • Wrap-up lecture and discussion

Systems to Classify, Categorise and Report Geological CO2 Storage Capacity (E542)

Tutor(s)

Bob Harrison: Director, Sustainable Ideas Ltd

Overview

While large scale carbon capture and storage (CCS) implementation continues to be debated, when it happens, a subsurface carbon storage management system will be needed. Such a framework must be capable of describing objective estimates of CO2 storage with respect to quantity and quality of available data, give a range of uncertainty in the estimation and provide injection project status from cradle to grave. This course reviews the subsurface carbon storage frameworks that are currently on offer worldwide.

Duration and Logistics

Classroom version: A 1.5-day course comprising a mix of lectures, case studies and exercises. The manual will be provided in digital format and participants will be required to bring a laptop or tablet computer to follow the lectures and exercises.

Virtual version: Three 3.5-hour interactive online sessions presented over 3 days. Digital course notes and exercise materials will be distributed to participants before the course.

Level and Audience

Intermediate. The course is intended for energy industry professionals, government regulatory bodies and energy sector investors.

Objectives

You will learn to:

  1. Appreciate the requirement for an auditable carbon storage reporting system.
  2. Gain familiarity with the different systems to report geologic carbon sequestration.
  3. Understand the pros and cons and limitations of the reporting systems on offer.
  4. Appreciate the key uncertainties in storage capacity estimates and how they may alter over time with increasing knowledge and experience.
  5. Be aware of bias in reporting and how to mitigate against it.
  6. Understand the need for appropriate ‘project boundaries’ to allow project comparison.

Course Content

With any industrial scale CCS development, there will be a governmental obligation for transparent and auditable inventory management of the corresponding stored volumes. This requirement will become mandatory as it is very likely that many carbon storage projects will be funded in part by the public purse. To this end, the available frameworks that allow the classification and categorisation of subsurface storage capacity are introduced and compared.

The different approaches for estimating carbon storage capacity in saline aquifers and depleted gas fields and how these methods may change with increasing knowledge of the storage site will be discussed.

From experience of the oil and gas sector, the inherent flexibility in using reporting systems that are principles-based rather than rules-based is highlighted and debated.

As reporting bias may arise from following guidance rather than rules, mitigation strategies to combat prejudice are presented.

The need for a ‘cradle to grave’ system to report the appropriate storage efficiency on a level playing field is emphasised via the example of the setting of project boundaries for a CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery project.

Case studies will be used to demonstrate carbon storage reporting systems at work.