World-class training for the modern energy industry

Integration of Rocks and Petrophysical Logs (G059)

Tutor(s)

Greg Samways: Director at GeoLumina

Overview

This course will focus on a simple petrophysical workflow entailing the determination of rock properties from conventional logs and core analysis data. Lithology, porosity, permeability and saturations will be determined using a variety of different analytical and simple modelling methods. Emphasis will be placed on understanding the importance of calibration, integration, and validation of the results of each method, based on a fundamental understanding of the geological controls on petrophysical properties.

Objectives

You will learn to:

  1. Understand the fundamental geological controls on reservoir properties.
  2. Describe how these properties are measured in the laboratory using conventional and special core analysis methods.
  3. Characterize the ways in which lithology and porosity are determined from well logs and calibrated with core analysis, and how permeability may be estimated in the subsurface away from core control.
  4. Evaluate how the Archie equation is used to determine saturation in cores and from well logs, and the uncertainties and limitations with this method
  5. Investigate how saturation-height models can be created from special core analysis data, thereby avoiding some of the limitations of the Archie method.
  6. Interpret typical conventional log and core analysis data using Excel spreadsheets.
  7. Experiment with the sensitivities of input parameters for various determinations, such as V-Shale, porosity and saturation.

Level and Audience

Fundamental. This course is intended for non-petrophysicists who require a grounding in the petrophysical determination of lithology, porosity and saturation from conventional and special core analysis, and conventional open-hole logs.

Duration and Logistics

Classroom version: 3-days with a mix of lectures and exercises. The manual will be provided in digital format and participants will be required to bring a laptop or tablet computer to follow the lectures and exercises.

Virtual version: Five, 3.5-hour interactive online sessions presented over 5 days (mornings in North America and afternoons in Europe). The course will focus on problem-solving using real-world data and use a series of Excel workbooks. A digital manual and exercise materials will be distributed to participants before the course.

Course Content

It is important to become familiar with all the different analytical approaches available and consider all the possibilities, enabling the interpreter to make a sound judgment as to the accuracy and validity of the analytical results they achieve. The sections below provide a more detailed outline of the program.

Session1: Fundamentals of Rock Properties

Presentation – Fundamentals of Rock Properties: Fluid-Rock Interactions and Their Geological Controls. What are the fundamental rock properties that control reservoir quality? If we are going to validate the accuracy of our reservoir parameter measurements, which must understand the fundamentals of the properties we are measuring. Understanding these fundamentals will enable us to constrain predictions away from well control. We must keep our models of the pore systems grounded in the geology.

Activity – Group Discussion: The nature of pore systems in the trainee’s reservoirs. Collaborative mind-mapping exercise using Mural.

Session 2: Measurement of Rock Properties

Presentation – Measurement of Rock Properties: Fundamentals, Limitations and Uncertainties in Conventional and Special Core Analysis. How are the key petrophysical rock properties measured in core? How reliable and comparable are the data? How do we validate the measurements?

Activity – Group Discussion: Consider the nature and reliability of core analysis in the trainee’s reservoirs. How are your cores collected, managed, processed and analyzed? What are the uncertainties and limitations of your data? Are there discrepancies between methods? Collaborative mind-mapping exercise using Mural.

Session 3: Lithology, Porosity and Permeability

Presentation – Determination of Lithology, Porosity and Permeability from Conventional Open-hole Logs. Conventional Open Hole Logging Tools: Function, Limitations and Uncertainties. Which tools do we use to determine lithology and porosity? How do we determine permeability? What are the tools really measuring and how can we validate the results by calibrating to core measurements?

How can advanced logs such as Borehole Images, Electron Capture Spectroscopy and NMR help us to refine our interpretations?

Exercise – Lithology, Porosity and Permeability Determination Case Study in an Excel Workbook.

Session 4: Archie Water Saturation

The Archie Equation: Application and Limitations in Core and Log Analysis. Where do all the inputs for the Archie equation come from? Do we believe them? What can we do when different analytical methods give different values for key input parameters? Should we rely on the core measurements or the log measurements? What can we do when Archie fails in shaly lithologies? What alternatives are offered by advanced logging techniques such as NMR and Dielectric Logs?

Exercise – Saturation Determination Case Study in an Excel Workbook using the Archie equation and Pickett Plots.

Session 5: Saturation-Height Analysis and Reservoir Summation

Presentation – Determination of Saturation vs. Height in the Reservoir. Creating a saturation model based on special core analysis. Many petrophysicists prefer to determine saturation using a saturation-height model based on special core analysis which is independent of fluid properties.

Reservoir Summation: What is the difference between net rock, net sand and net pay?

Exercise – Saturation-Height Case Study in an Excel Workbook. Determination of Net, Rock, Net Sand and Net Pay.

Essential Data Science for Subsurface Geoscientists and Engineers (G065)

Tutor(s)

David Psaila: Analytic Signal Limited

Overview

Interest in data science and machine learning is rapidly expanding, offering the promise of increased efficiency in E&P, and holding the potential to analyse and extract value from vast amounts of under-utilised legacy data. Combined with petroleum geoscience and engineering domain knowledge, the key elements underlying the successful application of the technology are: data, code, and algorithms. This course builds on public datasets, code examples written in Python, statistical graphics, and algorithms from popular data science packages to provide a practical introduction to the subject and its application in the E&P domain.

Duration and Logistics

Classroom version: 5 days consisting of lectures and computer-based exercises and practicals.

Virtual version: Ten, 3-hour online sessions presented over 5 days. The course is at an introductory level and all subject matter will be taught from scratch. No prior experience of statistics, Python coding or machine learning is required, although some basic college level knowledge of maths and statistics is useful. Hands-on computer workshops form a significant part of this course, and participants must come equipped with a laptop computer running Windows (8, 10, 11) or MacOS (10.10 or above) with sufficient free storage (4 Gb). Detailed installation instructions are provided in advance so that participants can set up their computer with the data science toolkit and course materials before the course starts.

Level and Audience

Fundamental. This is an introductory course for reservoir geologists, reservoir geophysicists, reservoir engineers, data management, and technical staff who want to learn the key concepts of data science.

Objectives

You will learn to:

  1. Analyse project data using the data science toolkit; notebooks, visualization, and communication.
  2. Perform data import and manipulation, data visualization, exploratory data analysis, and building predictive models from data.
  3. Have a working knowledge of coding in Python.
  4. Coordinate reference systems including geographic and projected coordinate systems.
  5. Use the fundamentals of machine learning including background concepts, the different types of machine learning, and the basic workflow to build and evaluate models from data.

Course Content

The course comprises a mix of lectures and hands-on computer workshops. You’ll gain a working knowledge of coding in Python. You’ll learn the tradecraft of data import and manipulation, data visualization, exploratory data analysis, and building predictive models from data. You’ll also gain a powerful working environment for data science on your own computer, which together with code examples provided by the course will give you a jump start to applying the techniques you’ll learn to your own projects. For a flavour of what you’ll learn, check out this gallery of visualization samples https://www.analyticsignal.com/visualization/index.html drawn from the course workshops.

What data sources are used?
Using real E&P data sources is an important element of the hands-on computer workshops. This course makes extensive use of open data provided the UK Oil and Gas Authority and the UK National Data Repository. These data sources are not only typical of the challenges and complexity presented by E&P datasets, but also contain sufficient data quality issues to make them ideal for teaching the all important skills of data cleaning and manipulation. The course makes use of well logs, tops, seismic, and production data from these sources. The data are released in the public domain and you can continue to use these sources as you gain in experience after the course.

What data science tools are used?
The course introduces a data science toolkit based on Visual Studio Code from Microsoft. This free product is rapidly growing in popularity as an environment for Python coding and data science. We think this toolkit provides a best-in-class environment for learning data science and subsequently moving to work on real projects, and we provide a free extension to further enhance its data science capabilities. The toolkit components will be installed on your computer – the advantage of this approach over cloud-based platforms is that your data is never uploaded to the cloud (if security is an issue), and you will be able to continue working when offline (if internet access is an issue).

Day 1
Module 1. Overview

  • What is Data Science – Overview of the course, and an outline of the scope of data science.
  • Data Science for E&P – Addressing the role of data science in E&P and an example application to log data quality control and reconstruction using machine learning.

Module 2. Data Science Toolkit – Notebooks, Visualization, and Communication

  • Overview of the data science toolkit.
  • Hands-on workshop introducing the toolkit and getting started with Python scripts and notebooks.
  • Overview of how to manage and use Python packages.
  • Hands-on workshop on Python packages covering how to install and manage packages, and how to use packages from your Python notebooks.
  • Introduction to data visualization with SandDance.
  • Hands-on workshop introducing SandDance for interactive data visualization using a dataset of offshore wells from the UK Continental Shelf.
  • Overview of Markdown, a lightweight markup language for adding simple formatting to plain text documents, and documenting Python notebooks.
  • Hands-on workshop on Markdown for formatting text documents and annotating Python notebooks.

Day 2
Module 3. Python Fundamentals

  • Python 101 – Introduction to Python fundamentals including variables, types, statements, expressions, control flow, and functions.
  • Hands-on workshop on Python 101.
  • Python 102 – More Python fundamentals including modules, files and folders, data structures, and data frames.
  • Hands-on workshop on Python 102.

Day 3
Module 4. Computational Thinking

  • Introduction to Computational Thinking – the analytical and logical processes of decomposing a complex task and expressing it in a form that can be performed by a computer.
  • Hands-on workshop on Computational Thinking applied to the design and implementation an interactive base map for UK E&P data.

Module 5. Exploratory Data Analysis

  • Exploratory Data Analysis – Introduction to the Exploratory Data Analysis process and key Python packages for data analysis and statistical graphics.
  • Hands-on workshop on exploratory data analysis of daily production data from the Vulcan gas field in the UK Southern North Sea – reading data, handling dates, cleaning values, resampling, merging datasets, creating statistical graphics, exporting results.
  • Statistical Graphics – Why visualization is so important. Introduction to the Plotly package for statistical graphics. A classification of statistical graphics. Demonstration of a gallery of statistical graphics samples.
  • Hands-on workshop on statistical graphics – using the Plotly Express package to create a gallery of statistical graphics samples. Code snippets (small blocks of reusable code) help make exploratory data analysis more fun by accelerating the journey from raw data files to working graphics.
  • Descriptive Statistics – Introduction to univariate and multivariate statistics.

Day 4
Module 6. Exploring E&P Data

  • Well header data – Introduction to handling well header data (surface location and attributes) using the pandas and plotly packages.
  • Hands-on workshop on well header data – including import, data cleaning, date handling, posting well data on cultural/satellite base map and visualizing historical trends.
  • Production data – Introduction to handling field production data using the pandas and plotly packages.
  • Hands-on workshop on field production data – including import, data cleaning, date handling, queries, visualizing hierarchical and time series data.
  • Well log data – Introduction to handling wireline logs from LAS files using the lasio, pandas, and plotly packages.
  • Hands-on workshop on well log and tops data – including LAS file import, merging tops, and data visualization.
  • Seismic data – Introduction to handling seismic SEG-Y data using the segyio, and plotly packages.
  • Hands-on workshop on seismic data – including SEG-Y file import, extracting binary and trace headers, visualizing seismic trace data, and calculating seismic attributes.

Day 5
Module 7. Geospatial Data

  • Coordinate reference systems – Introduction to geographic and projected coordinate systems, defining a coordinate reference system from EPSG codes, offsets between coordinate reference systems, and transforming positions between reference systems.
  • Hands-on workshop on coordinate reference systems – how to define a coordinate reference system and transform positions using the pyproj package.

Module 8. Machine Learning Fundamentals

  • Machine Learning – introduction to the fundamentals of machine learning including background concepts, the different types of machine learning, and the basic workflow to build and evaluate models from data.
  • Supervised learning with regression – introduction to regression including random forest regression and performance evaluation.
  • Hands-on workshop on regression for reconstructing wireline logs.
  • Unsupervised Learning – introduction to unsupervised learning for dimensionality reduction, clustering and outlier detection.
  • Hands-on workshop on dimensionality reduction for wireline logs.
  • Explainable Machine Learning – introduction to explainable machine learning: techniques for looking inside the so-called black box models of machine learning to understand why particular predictions are made and which variables are important.

An Introduction to the Principles of Geology for the Modern Energy Industry (G067)

Tutor(s)

Richard Swarbrick: Manager, Swarbrick GeoPressure

Overview

A successful modern energy system will depend on sustainable and careful stewardship and use of geological resources and sub-surface geology. This fundamental course is intended for all interested in learning the basics of geology in relation to the modern energy industry. Irrespective of background knowledge or skills, the course will introduce you to the key geological terminology and concepts in order to gain a better understanding of subsurface geology.

Duration and Logistics

Classroom version: A 1-day* course comprising a mix of lectures, case studies and exercises. The manual will be provided in digital format and participants will be required to bring a laptop or tablet computer to follow the lectures and exercises.

Virtual version: Two 4-hour online sessions presented over 2 days, comprising lectures and exercises. A digital manual will be distributed to participants before the course.

*A day in the field can be included where logistics allow, to observe a variety of rock types and for participants to gain a better understanding of key geological themes.

Level and Audience

Awareness. The course is intended to introduce the principal themes of geology for the modern energy industry. No previous knowledge is assumed and hence the course should also appeal to those without a science/geoscience background.

Objectives

You will learn to:

  1. Understand the future of energy provision and the role that geoscience plays.
  2. Recall the fundamental principles of geology including different rock types, geological time and stratigraphy.
  3. Understand how a sedimentary basin is formed and the different types of clastic depositional systems.
  4. Understand the basics of a geoscience subsurface toolkit including seismic imaging and other types of subsurface geological data.
  5. Appreciate the key elements of petroleum systems analysis with a focus on reservoirs.
  6. Recall the geological principles to be considered for carbon capture and storage (CCS) as well as hydrogen projects.
  7. Appreciate how a well is drilled into the subsurface and the types of wells that can be drilled.

Course Content

Session 1 Fundamental Principles of Geology

  • Structure of the Earth
  • Earth history
  • Basin formation and fill
  • Rock types
  • Sedimentary rocks
  • Sedimentary depositional systems
  • Principles of stratigraphy
  • Geological structures
  • Subsurface geoscience toolkit – seismic and other geological data

Session 2: Geology in the Modern Energy Industry

  • Petroleum systems analysis
  • Petroleum reservoir rocks
  • Principles of drilling into the subsurface
  • Reservoir geology for CCS and hydrogen projects

Best Practices in Pore Pressure and Fracture Pressure Prediction (G043)

Tutor(s)

Richard Swarbrick: Manager, Swarbrick GeoPressure

Overview

This course presents best practices in how data and standard techniques are combined to generate meaningful pore pressure (PP) and fracture pressure (FG) estimates from log, seismic and drilling data, and to use them to develop pre-drill predictions. The limitations are addressed, along with common pitfalls, leading to an understanding of the uncertainty and risk associated with PP and FG prediction.

The course begins by showing the types and reliability of subsurface data used to inform current knowledge, which will also calibrate PP and FG predictions at a remote location. Standard approaches to PP and FG prediction techniques are taught, with careful attention to where these have limitations on account of subsurface environment (thermal, tectonic) and data quality. A new approach to PP prediction using shales is taught as an independent guide to expected PP, especially valuable where only seismic data are available. Prediction of FG is taught by showing how to determine overburden stress and apply standard relationships, including new approaches with PP-stress coupling.

Duration and Logistics

Classroom version: A 1-day classroom course comprising a mix of lectures and discussion (90%) and exercises (10%). The manual will be provided in digital format, and participants will be required to bring a laptop or tablet computer to follow the lectures and exercises.

Virtual version: Three 3.5-hour interactive online sessions presented over 3 days (mornings in North America and afternoons in Europe). A digital manual and exercise materials will be distributed to participants before the course. Some reading and several exercises are to be completed by participants off-line.

Level and Audience

Intermediate. Intended for exploration and development geoscientists, petrophysicists, operations staff and drilling engineers. Familiarity with oilfield data and drilling practices is required. Experience shows that mixed classes of geoscientists and engineers benefit particularly from the discussions and sharing of approaches in this multi-disciplinary area of work.

Objectives

You will learn to:

  1. Distinguish the different types and quality of data that populate pressure-depth and EMW-depth plots for display of pressure predictions and calibration data in well planning.
  2. Use best practice to create PP estimations and predictions from seismic, log and drilling data using standard porosity-based techniques, and from modelling geological systems.
  3. Use best practice to create FG estimations and predictions by generating an overburden and establishing its relationship with FG and PP.
  4. Communicate Min-Expected-Max predictions effectively to both geoscience and engineering/operations staff involved in well planning.

Course Content

Session One

  • Introduction
  • Pressure-depth and EMW-depth plots
  • Geological context for pressure regimes
  • Methods for estimation and prediction of PP using:
    • seismic velocities
    • wireline and drilling-conveyed log data
    • drilling including real-time monitoring
    • modelling

Exercises throughout the day
Session Two

  • Best practice PP prediction
  • Methods of estimation and prediction of FG
  • PP – FG coupling and new methodology for FG
  • Best practice for FG
  • Well planning – assessing a range of predictions (Min to Max)
  • Global examples
  • Uncertainty and risk

Exercises throughout the day

Uncertainty and Risk in Development: Quantifying Subsurface Risk and Uncertainty for Producing Assets (G038)

Tutor(s)

Mark Bentley, Mark Cook or Richard Oxlade: TRACS International, Ltd

Overview

The quantification of risk and uncertainty is often discussed in the context of exploration and appraisal, yet most of the upstream E&P business concerns decision-making in producing assets. Handling uncertainty in development and production must deal with a growing and often imperfect production database, against a backdrop of constantly changing circumstances. As the life cycle progresses, initial uncertainties over volume and productivity narrow but are supplanted by new uncertainties, such as sweep efficiency, fine scale architecture and changing responses to new production mechanisms and techniques. These new issues demand a change in approach for the quantification of uncertainty, and vigilance is required to avoid the subsurface interpretation simply collapsing to a best guess. This short, focused workshop explores the key aspects required to manage subsurface uncertainties and associated risks during the producing field life, in terms of people, tools and approach. It will close with a set of questions to ask yourself and others, suitable for reference in informal personal or team reviews, peer reviews and peer assists.

Duration and Logistics

Classroom version: A 1-day course comprising a mix of lectures, case studies and exercises. The manual will be provided in digital format and participants will be required to bring a laptop or tablet computer to follow the lectures and exercises.

Virtual version: Two 4-hour interactive online sessions presented over 2 days (mornings in North America and afternoons in Europe). A digital manual and exercise materials will be distributed to participants before the course. Some reading and several exercises are to be completed by participants off-line.

Level and Audience

Advanced. Designed for geoscientists, reservoir engineers, petrophysicists, well technologists, team leaders and management involved in the quantification of risk and uncertainty in fields under development or in production. The class will provide an opportunity for learning, inspiration and discussion with other modelers.

Objectives

You will learn to:

  1. Resolve misunderstandings over definitions in risk and uncertainty.
  2. Understand the key differences between uncertainty and risk in development, compared to exploration and appraisal.
  3. Explain and mitigate common errors in handling probability.
  4. Describe workflows for handling risk and uncertainty in development decisions.
  5. Account for the impact of cognitive bias in E&P, and what to do about it.

Course Content

  1. Context
    • The driving issue: decision-making in producing assets
    • The key difference between uncertainty and risk in E&A vs development and production
    • Why it matters – some examples
  2. Practice
    • People – recognizing personality and imperatives, sources of bias, common heuristics and how to minimize them
    • Tools – the choices available, balancing simplicity and complexity, determinism and probability, and the pros and cons of each
    • Team approach – stitching tools of choice into a coherent methodology, the primacy of the underlying concept, the choice between forward modelling and inversion, and the key to successful team-based approaches beyond initial framing sessions · The Forth Rail Bridge example
  3. Advice

Introduction to Subsurface Pressures (G085)

Tutor(s)

Richard Swarbrick: Manager, Swarbrick GeoPressure

Overview

This course introduces attendees to subsurface fracture pressure and fluid pressure and their relevance to surface phenomena (e.g. slope failure), as well as assessing risk in deep boreholes (e.g. for hydrogeology, carbon sequestration, oil/gas exploitation and waste disposal). The course teaches the details of what data can be collected and how it can be visualized and interpreted, underpinning more detailed geological and engineering studies.

Duration and Logistics

Classroom version: A 2-day course comprising a mix of lectures, case studies and exercises. The manual will be provided in digital format and participants will be required to bring a laptop or tablet computer to follow the lectures and exercises.

Virtual version: Four 3.5-hour interactive online sessions presented over 4 days (mornings in North America and afternoons in Europe). A digital manual and exercise materials will be distributed to participants before the course. The course is rich in exercise material to build up participants’ understanding and confidence in a variety of techniques.

Objectives

You will learn to:

  1. Understand how fluid pressure and fracture pressure are relevant to subsurface geology.
  2. Evaluate the types of pressure data and measurements possible in the subsurface.
  3. Create plots and maps of pressure data to solve subsurface puzzles (e.g. compartmentalization of reservoirs; distinguishing between hydrodynamic vs hydrostatic flow conditions; and recognition of abnormal pressures).
  4. Appreciate the link between fluid pressure and fracture pressure, and appropriate coupling values.
  5. Recognize how and where pressure data relate to specific events (e.g. slope failure; surface fluid release phenomena; earthquakes and other ground movements).

Level and Audience

Fundamental. Intended for all hydrologists, geologists, geophysicists and geomechanical and reservoir engineers. Knowledge of subsurface geology is not required but would be an advantage. Highly relevant to all who are studying the subsurface and especially those engaged in deep drilling and storage.

Course Content

Session 1 – Fluid pressures

  • Course context
  • Fluid pressures, including measurements, datum reference for fluids and rocks
  • Pressure gradients
  • Typical data plots
  • Differences in datum and interpretation between onshore and offshore environments

Session 2 – Fluid pressures continued

  • Recognising fluid type related to density and gradients
  • Identification of fluid contacts
  • Recognition of abnormal pressures with emphasis on overpressure
  • Hydrodynamic vs hydrostatic conditions
  • Mapping pressures and overpressures
  • Recognition of fluid barriers – vertical and lateral
  • Identification of pressure cells / compartments and their significance
  • Appreciation of geological vs human timescale for barriers and baffles

Session 3 – Fracture pressures

  • Context for fracture pressures – rock stress and tectonic setting
  • Conditions for rock failure – shear vs tensile
  • Vertical / total stress
  • Differential stress and effective stress magnitudes and significance
  • Measurement of fracture strength in the subsurface – leak-off tests and other techniques

Session 4 Relationship between fluid and fracture pressure, and case studies

  • Plotting fluid and fracture pressures on multi-well plots
  • Evidence for fluid and fracture coupling
  • Case studies – slope failure, both onshore and offshore
  • Fluid expulsion phenomena, including seeps, geysers and mud volcanoes
  • Modelling pressures through time (palaeopressures) and impact of climate change on subsurface fluids and impacts

Prospect Generation, Maturation and Risking (G026)

Tutor(s)

Vitor AbreuPresident, ACT-GEO; Adjunct Professor, Rice University 

Overview

This practical, hands-on course is designed to enable attendees to enhance their skills of mapping and assessing prospects. This course teaches participants how to use play fairway mapping and petroleum system analysis to identify high potential plays and prospects, even in areas with sparse data. Once prospects are identified, the course teaches how to get map-derived, geologically based, objective inputs for prospect assessment and risking. This approach creates documented results that can be used to rank opportunities and make business decisions confidently.

Duration and Logistics

Classroom version: 5 days; a mix of classroom lectures and discussion (50%) and exercises (50%). The manual will be provided in digital format and participants will be required to bring a laptop or tablet computer to follow the lectures and exercises.

Virtual version: Ten 3-hour interactive online sessions presented over 5 days (morning and afternoon sessions in North America). A digital manual and hard-copy exercise materials will be distributed to participants before the course. Some reading and several exercises are to be completed by participants off-line.

Level and Audience

Fundamental. This course is intended for early- to mid-career geoscientists, reservoir engineers and petrophysicists, as well as managers – anyone involved in portfolio management and in generating and risking prospects.

Objectives

You will learn to:

  1. Identify and map plays and leads.
  2. Mature a lead to a prospect.
  3. Mature a prospect to a drillable status.
  4. Understand prospect definition workflow.
  5. Identify and map different types of structural and stratigraphic traps.
  6. Quantify risks and uncertainties related to presence of key play elements.
  7. Develop strategies to reduce play element presence risk.
  8. Apply fundamental concepts of portfolio management.

Course Content

From prospect lead to potential field

  • Exploration methods and strategies
  • Petroleum potential assessment in a basin and key stages in the exploration workflow
  • Subsurface mapping techniques for seismic and wells
  • Principles of stratigraphic mapping
  • Principles of structural mapping
  • Mapping generation, contouring and QCing
  • Workshop and hands-on exercises on prospect generation

Prospect analysis

  • Basin evolution history
  • Seismic and well data integration and interpretation
  • Risks and uncertainty estimation
  • Prospect ranking
  • Identification and assessment of risks and uncertainties related to geological factors (source, reservoir, seal, trap and preservation)
  • Chance of success
  • Hands-on exercises and case study

De-risking Carbonate Exploration (G008)

Tutor(s)

Paul Wright: Independent Consultant

Overview

This is a ‘what you really need to know about carbonates’ course, in order to attempt to de-risk carbonate prospects. Carbonate rocks are complex; however, there are basic principles that provide a framework in which such complexity may be rendered understandable. The course focuses on large scale rules, risks, uncertainties, strategies and workflows, with a heavy emphasis on seismic facies. It does not focus on appraisal or development aspects.

Duration and Logistics

Classroom version: A 4-day classroom course comprising a mix of lectures (75%) and exercises (25%). The manual will be provided in digital format and participants will be required to bring a laptop or tablet computer to follow the lectures and exercises.

Virtual version: Eight 3-hour interactive online sessions presented over 8 days (mornings in North America and afternoons in Europe). A digital manual and exercise materials will be distributed to participants before the course. Some reading and several exercises are to be completed by participants off-line.

Level and Audience

Advanced. This course is really aimed at explorationists with at least a basic knowledge of carbonates but will also prove useful to more experienced geoscientists by providing a synthesis of recent advances in understanding carbonate reservoirs, supported by potentially highly practical methodologies for framing uncertainties for reservoir presence.

Objectives

You will learn to:

1. Frame likely carbonate plays in relation to a given stratigraphic age and basin type.

2. Identify the main types of carbonate platform as seen from seismic data, de-risk certain types of features and assess the likely presence of key seismic facies.

3. Evaluate for a given interval and platform type the likely reservoir facies (platform interior, carbonate sands, reefs, slope systems and chalks) and assess the likelihood of reservoir presence.

4. Understand how the development of primary and secondary porosity has varied through geologic time and how these changes impact upon reservoir quality.

5. Appreciate the principal modes of formation of dolomites and the predictive uses of different dolomite models.

6. Understand and identify the diverse origins of palaeokarstic macroporosity, associated risks and the different strategies for developing palaeokarstic reservoirs.

Course Content

The course consists of lectures and exercises. The lectures focus on specific reservoir systems based on broad seismic facies and develop the methodology for defining the likelihood of reservoir-prone facies and of the diagenetic conditions for reservoir presence. For each major reservoir type a set of key associations and factors are evaluated as a form of flexible workflow. This approach is complemented by a series of exercises, including seismic, for identifying possible leads and carrying out de-risking procedures.

Topics

  • A refresher on the basics of carbonate rock composition
  • Carbonate platform types and seismic expression
  • Plays, traps and reservoirs – generalities
  • How carbonates change through time and how to predict likely reservoir-prone systems at different stratigraphic intervals
  • Source rocks, including intraplatformal basins
  • Isolated carbonate buildups – de-risking targeting carbonate ‘bumps’
  • Platform margin plays: facies-controlled reservoirs and diagenetic controls (dolomite, fracturing, karst)
  • Platform interiors – Late Paleozoic ice-house grainstone-to-build and fill systems, greenhouse systems and dolomite models
  • Carbonate sands – tide, wave (barriers islands, infralittoral wedges) and internalites. Emphasizing how to determine possible sandbody geometries from regional to local data sets
  • Slope and basinal carbonate plays, including fan lobe systems and chalks
  • Dolomites – especially HTDs and hydrothermal burial corrosion-related reservoirs
  • Paleokarst – types, facies, identification, exploration strategies and risk

Engineering of Resource Plays for Technical Professionals (G003)

Tutor(s)

Yucel Akkutlu: Professor, Texas A&M University

Overview

This course presents the terminology, methodology and concepts of drilling, completion and reservoir engineering as applied to unconventional resource plays, including oil-rich shales, gas shales and coal-seam gas. It will cover the latest practices as well as discuss future directions in unconventional resource engineering. Case studies are used to illustrate particular challenges presented by these plays. The environmental impacts on air and water resources are considered. Participants will learn to become more effective members of multi-disciplinary resource evaluation teams by developing a solid understanding of appropriate engineering concepts and terminology.

Duration and Logistics

Classroom version: A 3-day course comprising a mix of lectures (70%), case studies (20%) and exercises (10%). The manual will be provided in digital format and participants will be required to bring a laptop or tablet computer to follow the lectures and exercises.

Virtual version: Five 4-hour interactive online sessions presented over 5 days (mornings in North America and afternoons in Europe), including a mix of lectures (70%), case studies (20%) and exercises (10%). A digital manual and hard-copy exercise materials will be distributed to participants before the course.

Level and Audience

Intermediate. The course is designed for technical professionals and managers who want to understand the role of the engineer in resource play projects. In particular, geoscientists, petrophysicists and drilling, completion and stimulation engineers would benefit from the course.

Objectives

You will learn to:

  1. Discuss aspects of reservoir, drilling, completion and stimulation engineering with engineering members of unconventional project teams.
  2. Contrast engineering approaches to conventional and unconventional projects.
  3. Assess resource estimates, production forecasts and economic evaluations for unconventional plays.
  4. Review the sampling procedures adopted by reservoir engineers.
  5. Predict the hydrocarbon phase change in reservoirs.
  6. Assess the demand for and disposal of water associated with fracturing and producing unconventional reservoirs.
  7. Assess the impact of unconventional projects on air quality.
  8. Discuss recent advances in the optimization of resource plays.

Course Content

Introduction

  • Overview of unconventional resources
  • Geological and geochemical considerations for resource shales

Drilling, completion and stimulation technologies

  • Horizontal well drilling
  • Multi-stage hydraulic fracturing
  • Micro-seismic monitoring

Sampling and laboratory measurements for shale

  • Sampling techniques and field measurements of fluid content
  • Porosity and pore size measurements
  • Permeability measurements
  • Storage and flow characteristics of resource shales
  • Pore size considerations for hydrocarbon storage and transport
  • Multi-phase flow in tight formations

Reservoir engineering

  • Hydrocarbon recovery from kerogen pores
  • Volumetric calculations for natural gas reservoirs
  • Material balance for natural gas reservoirs
  • Pressure transient regimes in hydraulically fractured horizontal wells
  • Rate-transient and pressure-transient models and their applications
  • Production history-marching and forecasting
  • Fracture Net Present Value (NPV) and Discounted Return on Investment (DROI) calculations
  • Decline curve analysis using Arp’s equation
  • Estimated ultimate recovery of production well

Future directions in unconventional resource engineering

  • New trends in drilling and completion technologies
  • Enhanced hydrocarbon recovery technologies for shale
  • Environmental considerations, including water resources management, groundwater protection and waste-water disposal

Practical Seismic Interpretation (G027)

Tutor(s)

Rachel Newrick: Consultant Geophysicist, Racian Ventures

John Randolph: Consultant Geophysicist

Overview

This class provides an overview of seismic wave propagation, discusses important issues related to seismic data acquisition and imaging, and introduces students to practical seismic interpretation workflows, including mapping techniques. Additional topics, such as seismic attributes, borehole geophysics, reservoir characterization and reservoir surveillance, are also included. Technical discussions will cover both conventional and unconventional reservoir topics.

Duration and Logistics

Classroom version: A 4-day in-person classroom course, comprising a mix of lectures (65%) and hands-on exercises (35%). The manual will be provided in digital format and participants will be required to bring a laptop or tablet computer to follow the lectures and exercises.

Virtual version: Five 4.5-hour interactive online sessions presented over 5 days (mornings in North America and afternoons in Europe). A digital manual and exercise materials will be distributed to participants before the course. Some reading and several exercises are to be completed by participants off-line. Multiple choice quizzes will be utilized to reinforce learnings.

Level and Audience

Fundamental. Intended for early career geoscientists and for technical support staff who work with seismic data.

Objectives

You will learn to:

  1. Explain the fundamentals of seismic wave propagation and factors affecting resolution at the reservoir level.
  2. Calibrate seismic data using well data.
  3. Communicate effectively with data acquisition and processing specialists.
  4. Execute an effective interpretation workflow for a 2-D seismic project.
  5. Apply interpretation fundamentals to design a 3-D workflow on a workstation.
  6. Utilize multiple offset volumes to perform reconnaissance AVO analysis.
  7. Apply basic seismic sequence stratigraphic interpretation principles.
  8. Perform time-to-depth conversions using simplified velocity models.
  9. Utilize common seismic attributes to characterize reservoirs.
  10. Generate volumetric estimates of recoverable reserves (EUR).

Course Content

Workflow training begins with the calibration of seismic data, the establishment of correlation loops and structural contouring. More advanced workflows, including depth conversion and the practical application of AVO using multiple offset volumes in the interpretation process, will be demonstrated. Direct hydrocarbon indicators and basic principles of seismic sequence stratigraphy will also be discussed during the lectures and exercise sessions.

Part 1

  • What is seismic data? What can it do? What are its limitations?
  • Introduction to seismic wave propagation and elastic behavior of rocks
  • How is seismic data recorded?
  • What is required to generate useful subsurface images?
  • What can go wrong?
  • The interpreter’s role in working with acquisition and processing specialists

Exercise: Seismic well ties using synthetic seismograms or VSPs.

Part 2

  • A practical 2-D seismic interpretation workflow
  • Understanding the geology of a project
  • Identifying critical geologic risk factors

Exercise: Constructing an interpretation baseline for a project.

Exercise: Tying interpretation loops for multiple horizons.

Exercise: Constructing a lineament map to guide the interpretation.

Exercise: Generating a structure map.

Exercise: Construction and use of isochron maps.

Exercise: Using 3-D time slices to validate an interpretation.

  • A simplified approach to time / depth conversion

Part 3

  • A 3-D interpretation case history

Exercise: Using time slices to validate an interpretation.

  • Using stratal slices to characterize a reservoir
  • Useful seismic geometric attributes
  • Reservoir characterization: What rock parameters can seismic ‘see’?

Exercise: Use of direct H/C indicators to estimate reservoir size.

  • Seismic inversion tools
  • AVO Interpretation workflows using multiple offset volumes
  • Unconventional reservoirs:
    • tomographic velocity models and reservoir stress
    • fracture characterization tools
    • benefits and limitations of using fiberoptic sensors
    • can seismic data image stimulated rock volume?
  • Wrap-up discussion