World-class training for the modern energy industry

The Fundamentals of Business for the Energy Transition: A European Perspective (E908)

Tutor(s)

Ben Klooss: Camberwell Energy

Overview

The aim of this course is to provide an overview of key business aspects in relation to the energy transition. Two case studies will be used to frame the course learnings.

Duration and Logistics

Classroom version: A half-day course comprising a mix of lectures, case studies and exercises. The manual will be provided in digital format and participants will be required to bring a laptop or tablet computer to follow the lectures and exercises.

Virtual version: One 3-hour interactive online session (a morning in North America and an afternoon in Europe). A digital manual and exercise materials will be distributed to participants before the course.

Level and Audience

Awareness. The course is aimed at non-technical staff and those who do not have a business background but want a basic introduction to the topic. The subject matter will be covered from very basic principles and will be of interest to staff from a range of departments, including legal, graphics, administration and technical support, as well as the geoscience staff.

Objectives

You will learn to:

  • Understand the current global energy demand and how this will look in the future.
  • Recall the economic aspects of renewables.
  • Appreciate the mix and projected levels of current energy supply.
  • Describe the decarbonization targets for the EU and the overall scale of the energy transition that is required.

Course Content

This short course covers the key aspects of business for the energy transition and will give participants a fundamental understanding of the key aspects. Topics to be covered include:

  • Global energy demand and current and future projections by sector to 2050, with a focus on Europe – demand for electricity vs primary energy
  • Economic aspects of renewables (e.g. profitability, size of the application vs economics)
  • Global and European energy supply – current and projected levels of primary energy supply, including hydrocarbons, nuclear and renewables (e.g. geothermal, wind, hydrogen, solar and bioenergy). European estimates of domestically produced vs imported total primary energy
  • European climate policy objectives. Decarbonization targets for the EU and separately for the UK. The scale of the low-carbon energy transition that is required in Europe
  • Two case studies to illustrate opportunities, policy drivers and commercial factors: CCS in the Netherlands; and Hydrogen in the Netherlands. Each case study will discuss:
    • Specific market context to outline the scale of the opportunity
    • Policies, regulations and support instruments (i.e. carbon price, contract for difference, subsidies) directly affecting the particular business opportunity
    • Potential business models and commercial risks. This will include high-level descriptions of the factors determining business viability and profitability, as well as limiting factors

CCS Reservoir Geology at Outcrop: Rotliegend and Bunter/Sherwood Sandstones, Cumbria and NW Cheshire (E578)

Tutor(s)

Richard Worden: Professor in the Department of Earth Ocean and Ecological Sciences, University of Liverpool, UK

Overview

This course is intended to give subsurface teams the opportunity to see some of the rocks at outcrop that they are planning to use as CO2 storage sites. Visiting these outcrops will allow subsurface teams, who generally use logs and limited core to build models, the opportunity to see the larger and smaller scale architecture of the rocks they are working on. We will also discuss post-depositional changes to their sandstones, including petrophysical and geomechanical property evolution (pre- and post-CO2 injection), and some of the risks associated with developing saline aquifers and depleted gas fields as CO2 storage sites in these sandstones.

Duration and Logistics

A 5-day field course comprising a mix of field activities in NW England (Cumbria, Cheshire and Merseyside) with classroom lecture sessions and discussions.

Exertion Level

This class requires a MODERATE exertion level. Field locations are mainly relatively easy walks from road access points, although there may be some scrambling over coastal boulders and walking down and up tide-dependent coastal access paths.

Level and Audience

Intermediate. This course is intended for geoscience and engineering professionals working in CCS projects, especially those with an active interest in the Permian Rotliegend and Triassic Bunter/Sherwood Sandstones.

Objectives

You will learn to:

  1. Characterize the main depositional features that influence Permian Sandstone (Rotliegend) reservoir properties and CCS reservoir development and likely performance.
  2. Assess the main diagenetic features that influence Permian Sandstone (Rotliegend) reservoir properties and CCS reservoir development and likely performance.
  3. Appraise the main depositional features that influence Triassic Sandstone (Bunter/Sherwood) reservoir properties and CCS reservoir development and likely performance.
  4. Examine the main diagenetic features that influence Triassic Sandstone (Bunter/Sherwood) reservoir properties and CCS reservoir development and likely performance.
  5. Evaluate the role of depositional and diagenetic processes in influencing top-seal caprock performance in CCS reservoirs.

Course Content

The course will incorporate field visits to East and West Cumbria (Vale of Eden and St Bees Head) and NW Cheshire/Merseyside (Hilbre, Thursaston, Helsby, Beeston, Daresbury). There will also be formal classroom presentations about what the class has seen/will see and its relevance to Permian (Rotliegend) and Triassic (Sherwood and Bunter) CCS reservoir, with consideration and possible visits to overlying mudstone caprocks (Permian: St Bees Shale/Zechstein; Triassic: Mercia Mudsone/Haisborough Gp).

Itinerary (tbc based on availability of sites)

Day 1

  • Arrive at Armathwaite (Vale of Eden hotel if available)
  • Evening presentations on the outcrop (field) and subsurface geology of the Lower Permian sandstones (Rotliegend equivalent)

Day 2
Field visits: Vale of Eden

  • Travel to Ravenglass (Pennington hotel if available)
  • Evening presentations on the outcrop (field) and subsurface geology of the Upper Permian and the Lower part of the Sherwood Sandstones (Bunter equivalent)

Day 3
Field visits: Ravenglass and north of St Bees Head (highly tide dependent access to coastal outcrops)

  • Travel to North Cheshire (North Cheshire Hotel if available)

Day 4
Field visits: Upper Sherwood Sandstone, possibly at Hilbre, West Kirby or similar (Ormskirk Fm, equivalent of Upper Bunter)

  • Travel to Liverpool/Wirral and North Cheshire
  • Possible evening presentation on geology of depleted gas fields and saline aquifers in Triassic sandstones

Day 5
Field visits: Upper Sherwood Sandstone and possibly lowermost Mercia Mudstone Group in NW England, outcrops at Helsby, Beeston, Daresbury or even Altrincham

  • Check out of Chester hotel
  • Course concludes

 

Geothermal Sedimentary Systems: Exploration, Development and Production Principles (E574)

Tutor(s)

Mark Ireland: Senior Lecturer in Energy Geoscience, Newcastle University

Overview

This course covers all aspects of various sedimentary geothermal systems, from exploration through to production. It is intended as an introduction to the entire lifecycle of sedimentary geothermal resources, covering aspects of geoscience and engineering.

Duration and Logistics

Four 3.5-hour interactive online sessions presented over 4 days. A digital manual and exercise materials will be distributed to participants before the course.

Level and Audience

Fundamental. The course is intended for all career stage industry professionals and early career researchers with a geoscience or geo-engineering background, including those with a familiarity in oil and gas production.

Objectives

You will learn to:

  1. Understand the basic principles of heat generation within the upper crust.
  2. Describe the key characteristics of sedimentary geothermal resources and reservoirs.
  3. Examine the geothermal play concept.
  4. Establish exploration methods using oil and gas data to assess geothermal resources in sedimentary basins.
  5. Illustrate the development and production options for these geothermal resources.
  6. Appreciate the principle geological hazards, in relation to geothermal projects, including induced seismicity.
  7. Appreciate the range of environmental impacts associated with geothermal developments.
  8. Appreciate project risks and uncertainties in developing geothermal resources.

Course Content

This course will focus on the lifecycle of sedimentary geothermal resources and the associated project workflows.

Session 1: Principles of sedimentary geothermal resources

  • Sedimentary basins: formation and types
  • Heat flow in the upper crust
  • Geothermal play system types

Session 2: Geothermal resource characterization

  • Geological characterization of resources
  • Geothermal sedimentary reservoirs characterization
  • Demand side importance

Session 3: Exploration to production

  • Geothermal exploration and production
  • Geohazards and environmental considerations
  • Case studies

Session 4: Impacts, risks and uncertainties

  • Uncertainties and challenges in developing geothermal resources
  • Integration of geothermal resources into energy systems planning

Lessons Learned from Carbon Capture and Storage Projects to Date (E577)

Tutor(s)

Matthew Healey: Pace CCS

Overview

This course is designed to provide information vital to anyone involved with CCS project design. It will provide an introduction to CCS design with a focus on sharing lessons learned from CCS projects in design and operation today. Technical analysis, useful references and practical solutions will be provided.

Duration and Logistics

A 1-day in-person classroom course. An electronic copy of the manual will be provided by the tutor at the end of the course.

Level and Audience

Advanced. This course is suitable for all management and technical staff engaged in carbon capture and storage design and operations. It will provide clear, actionable, technical information that will be immediately applicable to CCS project design.

Objectives

You will learn to:

  1. Understand the key elements in the CCS chain, from capture to disposal.
  2. Understand the unique challenges faced by CCS, and how these are different from oil and gas, CO2-EOR and midstream projects, with primary reference to project experience and lessons learned.
  3. Apply fundamentals of CO2 design, including thermodynamics, chemical reactions, carbon capture, dehydration and compositional control.
  4. Understand the risk to CCS pipeline and well integrity due to corrosion, with primary reference to project experience and lessons learned.
  5. Review the behavior of CO2 and challenges associated with very low temperatures during operation, with primary reference to project experience and lessons learned.
  6. Understand the challenges related to design in order to manage planned and unplanned CO2 releases to atmosphere from CCS projects, with primary reference to project experience and lessons learned.
  7. Review the key commercial drivers and risks for CCS that inform design, and understand how these are managed, with primary reference to project experience and lessons learned.
  8. Review lessons learned from application of project management and organizational processes to CCS deliver teams, in order to understand how best to deliver CCS project design and execution.

Course Content

The global CCS industry in the context of global climate change

  • Climate change (for engineers)
  • Global decarbonization: progress so far
  • The CCS value chain
  • CCS and energy transition: future outlook
  • Global CCS experience and summary of lessons learned

CCS fundamentals

  • The full chain, from capture to storage
  • DAC and CO2 utilization
  • The CCS industrial hub
  • Case study: Porthos CCS
  • Case study: Baton Rouge corridor CCS
  • Energy transition: how CCS enables green energy
  • CO2 transport by ship and road tanker
  • Case study: Northern Lights CCS
  • Case study: Greensand CCS

Integrity risks for CCS projects

  • Technical need-to-knows (aka the fun bit): thermodynamics, hydraulics, physical behavior and chemical reactions, etc.
  • Corrosion risk on CCS projects
  • Case study: Gorgon LNG CCS
  • Case study: Aramis CCS
  • Low temperatures on CCS projects
  • Case study: DeepC CCS
  • Case study: HyNet CCS
  • CO2 venting and unplanned releases
  • Case study: venting an onshore CO2 pipeline and injection wells
  • Case study: historical CO2 releases and other incidents

Lessons learned: how to deliver a good CCS project

  • Commercial drivers: opportunities and challenges
  • Case study: Quest CCS
  • Risk management
  • Emerging technologies
  • The CCS industry in 2050

Q&A

Hydrogen Technology: Value Chain and Projects (E572)

Tutor(s)

Matt Healey: PACE CCS

Overview

This course is designed to provide the participants with a summary of the technical and engineering challenges within hydrogen energy, including production, storage and transport, in addition to associated risk and safety challenges.

Duration and Logistics

Classroom version: A 1-day in-person classroom course. An electronic copy of the manual will be provided by the tutor at the end of the course.

Virtual version: Three 2.5-hour interactive online sessions presented over 3 days (mornings in North America and afternoons in Europe), including a mix of lectures and discussion. The course manual will be provided in digital format.

Level and Audience

Advanced. This course is designed for all technical staff working on hydrogen projects with an emphasis on operations, facilities and engineering aspects.

Objectives

You will learn to:

  1. Outline the different ‘colours’ of hydrogen and how these are produced.
  2. Evaluate the technical challenges with hydrogen, including thermodynamic modelling of H2 mixtures.
  3. Review how H2 can be stored and transported safely.
  4. Outline the design specifications of H2 networks with a focus on pipelines, including material of construction and reuse of existing infrastructure.

Course Content

The course will cover the following topics and will be split into two or three sessions, depending on whether it is an in-person class or interactive on-line event.

Session 1

Hydrogen commodity strategy

  • Value of H2 and its strategic position in the energy transition
  • Economic study case: key takeaways, its challenges and conclusions

Hydrogen production

  • Green hydrogen
  • Blue hydrogen
  • Other colours

Technical challenges with hydrogen

  • Quantum effects and kinetics of isomer conversion
  • Thermodynamic modelling of H2-rich mixtures
  • What are the current engineering and scientific practices? Learnings from CERN and NASA
  • Energy content

Session 2

Large-scale storage and compression

  • Seasonal underground storage
  • Long-term pressurized storage
  • Types of compressors
  • Energy consumption

Hydrogen transport

  • Gas pipelines
  • Liquid bulk transport

Hydrogen carriers

  • LOHC
  • Ammonia
  • Methanol
  • Natural gas

Session 3

Material of construction

  • Material selection
  • Reuse of pipelines
  • Codes and standards

Risk and safety

  • Gas and flame detection
  • Fire and explosion risks session

Current projects worldwide and value chains

  • Description of current project in Europe
  • Blue CCS project
  • Integration with oil and gas
  • Green and blue hydrogen corridor

The Transportation and Geological Storage of Hydrogen (E576)

Tutor(s)

Katriona Edlmann: Chancellor’s Fellow in Energy, University of Edinburgh

Overview

The course will focus on the need for geological storage of hydrogen, introducing the geological storage options available for the secure storage and withdrawal of hydrogen from these different geological stores. The main body of the course will explore the key considerations involved in geological hydrogen storage, including hydrogen flow processes and thermodynamics; geomechanical responses to rapid injection and withdrawal cycles; geochemical and microbial interactions during storage; and the operational considerations and monitoring of hydrogen storage sites that may impact storage integrity, withdrawal rates and hydrogen purity.

Duration and Logistics

Classroom version: A 1.5-day course comprising a mix of lectures, case studies and exercises. The manual will be provided in digital format and participants will be required to bring a laptop or tablet computer to follow the lectures and exercises.

Virtual version: Three 4-hour interactive online sessions presented over three days (mornings in North America and afternoons in Europe). Digital course notes and exercise materials will be distributed to participants before the course. Some exercises may be completed by participants off-line.

Level and Audience

Advanced. The course is largely aimed at geoscientists, but engineers will also find the course instructive. Intended for sub-surface scientists, with an emphasis on geoscience topics. Participants will probably have a working knowledge of petroleum geoscience.

Objectives

You will learn to:

  1. Describe the different geological storage options available and their capacity and spatial constraints.
  2. Understand hydrogen as a fluid in the subsurface, including its thermodynamic and transport properties.
  3. Characterize the geomechanical considerations for storage integrity and associated risks, including caprock sealing considerations.
  4. Appreciate the impact of geochemical and microbial interactions in subsurface hydrogen stores and the relevant monitoring and management tools.
  5. Describe the operational engineering considerations and monitoring of hydrogen storage sites.

Course Content

Part 1: Options for the geological storage of hydrogen

  • Existing experience in underground gas storage operations
    • natural gas
    • hydrogen
  • Subsurface silos
    • technology description
    • design requirements (including geological requirements)
    • sealing / subsurface silos and groundwater control
    • hydrogen injection and withdrawal operational procedures / considerations
    • costs and safety considerations
  • Engineered rock caverns
    • technology description
    • design requirements (including geological requirements)
    • hydrodynamic sealing design principles
    • cavern construction and groundwater control
    • hydrogen injection and withdrawal operational procedures / considerations
    • hard rock cavern rock types / distribution / inventory
    • costs and safety considerations
  • Salt caverns
    • technology description
    • design requirements (including geological requirements)
    • cavern construction
    • hydrogen injection and withdrawal operational procedures / considerations
    • salt cavern rock types / distribution / inventory
    • costs and safety considerations
  • Porous rock storage – aquifers
    • technology description
    • design requirements (including geological requirements)
    • hydrogen injection and withdrawal operational procedures / considerations
    • aquifer storage distribution / inventory
    • costs and safety considerations
  • Porous rock storage – depleted gas fields
    • technology description
    • design requirements (including geological requirements)
    • hydrogen injection and withdrawal operational procedures / considerations
    • aquifer storage distribution / inventory
    • costs and safety considerations
  • Global UHS projects and their integration with existing and future energy systems
    • global UHS pilot projects in the pipeline
    • integration with energy system (renewable / curtailed wind / electricity / gas)

Activities include: Calculating volumetric capacities/energy densities of hydrogen under the different storage options; Using EU and global geological map viewers, geographical locations for the various hydrogen storage opportunities will be explored and evaluated within the context of existing energy infrastructures, renewable energy and industrial centres.

Part 2: Hydrogen flow and geomechanics

  • Thermodynamic and transport properties of hydrogen / Hydrogen P-T phase diagram
  • Thermodynamic and transport properties of hydrogen mixtures (water, CO2, N2, CH4 and natural gas)
  • Hydrogen transport properties (all storage types)
    • porosity (primary / secondary)
    • permeability and its influence on hydrogen injection and flow
      • absolute and effective permeability
      • permeability isotropy and anisotropy
      • homogeneity and heterogeneity
    • relative permeability
    • capillary entry pressure
      • pore size
      • interfacial tension
      • contact angle
      • wettability
    • advection
    • molecular diffusion
    • dispersion
    • diffusion
    • viscous fingering
  • Geomechanical considerations for storage integrity during cyclic injection
    • temperature changes during injection / withdrawal
    • pressure changes during injection / withdrawal
    • reservoir deformation
  • Caprock sealing potential
    • capillary pressure column height conversion
    • diffusive losses
    • stress / strain and hysteresis
      • injection / withdrawal pressures
      • stress state in the subsurface
      • failure mechanics
      • formation damage
      • faults and leakage risk
      • fractures and microfractures
    • drainage / imbibition
      • residual trapping

Activities include: Hydrogen column height calculations; Hydrogen caprock diffusion calculations; Injection rate calculations for varying permeability.

Part 3: Impact of geochemical and microbial interactions

  • Hydrogen solubility and impact of pressure, temp, Ph and salinity
  • Geochemistry
    • range of minerals that may react with hydrogen and their associated lithology, e.g. pyrite / pyrrhotite, anhydrite, hematite, clays, calcite etc.
    • mechanisms and kinetics of redox reactions
    • kinetics of precipitation and dissolution
    • mineral reaction rates
    • reactions with well cements and casing
    • impact of geochemical activities
      • gas composition changes
      • dissolution of minerals and change in reservoir properties
      • souring and H2S
      • steel corrosion
    • geochemical impacts from experiences of hydrogen underground storage
  • Risks associated with microbial activities
    • microbes in the subsurface (what and where)
    • environmental parameters for microbial life
    • microbial hydrogen consumption processes
    • impact of microbial activities
      • gas composition changes
      • souring and H2S
      • microbial induced plugging or clogging
      • steel corrosion
      • dissolution of minerals and change in reservoir properties
      • impact of H leakage on soil and groundwater microbial communities
    • microbial activity impacts from experiences of hydrogen underground storage sites
    • microbial effects in salt caverns
    • recommendations on design, monitoring and management tools to manage microbial risks

Activities include: Classification of storage sites in terms of risks of mineral dissolution; Classification of storage sites in terms of risks of microbial consumption of hydrogen.

Part 4: Operational considerations and monitoring of hydrogen storage sites

  • Optimization of injection-withdrawal strategies
  • Cushion gas
    • role of cushion gas
    • implications of using different types of cushion gas on the effectiveness of storage operations
  • Analyses and assessments of potential interactions with existing (sub)surface usage and resources
  • Integrity of surface facilities and wells
    • evaluation of storage facility lifecycle
    • well cement integrity
    • suitability of materials for wells and surface facilities
    • storage facility operational parameters
    • safety and monitoring concepts
  • Risk of leakage through abandoned wells
    • abandonment completion assessments
    • leakage assessment
  • Risk of micro seismicity during cyclic injection and production operations
  • Monitoring strategies
    • geophysics: seismic / microseismic, electrical resistivity etc.
    • monitoring wells
    • conventional monitoring: annulus pressure, radioactive tracer survey, casing inspection log, pressure test on the casing, neutron log, sonic detection, cement bond log, temperature log, spinner survey, pump and plug test, and camera inspection, etc.
  • Public perception

Activities include: Risk assessment of hydrogen leakage; Assessment of re-purposing depleted gas field for hydrogen storage.

Geochemical effects of CO2 on Reservoir, Seals and Engineered Environments during CCS (E544)

Tutor(s)

Richard Worden, Professor in the Department of Earth Ocean and Ecological Sciences, University of Liverpool, UK

Overview

The geochemistry of saline aquifers, depleted oil/gas fields in the context of CO2, and other waste gas, injection is considered. The reactions of CO2 with different reservoir rocks and top-seals, and their constituent minerals, and the cement and metal work used in the construction of wells are central to this course. The course includes reference to numerous CCS and CO2-EOR case studies, CCS-pilot sites, experiments, geochemical modelling, reaction-transport modelling, monitoring of CCS sites, microbiological processes in CCS systems, and the risk of halite scale formation.

Duration and Logistics

Classroom version: A 1.5-day course comprising a mix of lectures, case studies and exercises. The manual will be provided in digital format and participants will be required to bring a laptop or tablet computer to follow the lectures and exercises.

Virtual version: Three 3.5-hour interactive online sessions presented over 3 days (mornings in North America and afternoons in Europe). Digital course notes and exercise materials will be distributed to participants before the course. Exercises will be used throughout the course; these will include calculations, largely based on spreadsheets. Quizzes will be used to test knowledge development.

Level and Audience

Advanced. The course is largely aimed at specialist geoscientists, but petroleum engineers and petrophysicists who are working on, or plan to work on, CCS projects will also find the course instructive. A foundation knowledge of geochemistry is assumed.

Objectives

You will learn to:

  1. Appraise the types and sources of information needed to define geochemical aspects of CCS sites.
  2. Evaluate the role of CO2 pressure in influencing reactions at CCS sites.
  3. Assess the information that can be gathered from natural analogues of CCS projects.
  4. Evaluate the role of composition of the injected gas (role of contaminants) in influencing reactions at CCS sites.
  5. Gauge the role of water composition in influencing reactions at CCS sites.
  6. Characterize the role of mineral composition (rock type) in influencing reactions at CCS sites.
  7. Manage examples of mineral dissolution in CCS systems.
  8. Predict possible examples of mineral precipitation in CCS systems.
  9. Gauge CO2 interaction with cements and pipes used in well completions.
  10. Assess how experimental simulation, geochemical reaction modelling and reaction transport modelling can help predict if dissolution or precipitation will occur.
  11. Validate the links between geochemical processes and geomechanical and petrophysical properties in CCS systems.
  12. Use geochemical tracers to track process in CCS systems.
  13. Characterize the microbiological processes that may occur at CCS sites.
  14. Predict the geochemical formation damage in CCS.
  15. Quantify the role of CCS in basalt hosts in comparison to sedimentary hosts.

Course Content

  1. Definitions, sources of geochemical information and injected gas compositions
    • Topic 1 – Defining the geochemistry of CCS
    • Topic 2 – The sources of information that inform us about geochemical processes involved in CCS
    • Topic 3 – What gases will be injected into the subsurface during CCS
  2. Forms of CO2 in the subsurface and dissolution of CO2
    • Topic 1 – CO2 phase behavior
    • Topic 2 – Forms of CO2 in the subsurface
    • Topic 3 – Solubility and dissolution of CO2
  3. Mineral dissolution and precipitation processes during CCS
    • Topic 1 – Under what circumstances and how mineral dissolution occurs following the injection of CO2 and contaminant gases
    • Topic 2 – Under what circumstances and how mineral precipitation occurs following the injection of CO2 and contaminant gases
    • Topic 3 – The driving force behind dissolution and precipitation due to CO2 injection
    • Topic 4 – Reaction kinetics of dissolution and precipitation reactions due to CO2 injection
  4. Sandstone reservoirs and CCS geochemistry
    • Topic 1 – Introduction to sandstone mineralogy and texture
    • Topic 2 – Evidence that sandstones can undergo dissolution during CCS
    • Topic 3 – Evidence that minerals may precipitate during sandstone CCS
    • Topic 4 – The role of acid gas contamination on sandstone geochemical processes
    • Topic 5 – Review and summary of the effects of dissolution and precipitation on sandstone rock properties
  5. Carbonate reservoirs and CCS geochemistry
    • Topic 1 – Introduction to carbonate mineralogy and texture
    • Topic 2 – Evidence that carbonates can undergo dissolution during CCS
    • Topic 3 – Evidence that minerals may precipitate during carbonate CCS
    • Topic 4 – The role of acid gas contamination on carbonate geochemical processes
    • Topic 5 – Review and summary of the effects of dissolution and precipitation on carbonate rock properties
  6. Low permeability rocks and CCS geochemistry
    • Topic 1 – Introduction to the mineralogy and texture of low-permeability top-seals and fault-seals
    • Topic 2 – Evidence that top-seals may undergo reaction during CCS
    • Topic 3 – Effects of CCS reactions on top-seal properties
    • Topic 4 – Evidence that fault-seals may undergo reaction during CCS
    • Topic 5 – Effects of CCS reactions on fault-seal properties
  7. The well environment, corrosion leakage and CCS geochemistry
    • Topic 1 – Leakage risks associated with cement and pipe corrosion
    • Topic 2 – Metal-CO2 (and contaminant gases) corrosion processes
    • Topic 3 – Cement-CO2 (and contaminant gases) corrosion processes
  8. CCS monitoring using geochemical tracers and the effect of CCS on microbial processes
    • Topic 1 – Geochemical tracers for CCS (natural and synthetic)
    • Topic 2 – Potential use of geochemical tracers in CO2 storage sites
    • Topic 3 – Microbial processes in CO2 storage sites
  9. Halite and other geochemical formation damage and basalt-hosted CCS
    • Topic 1 – Summary of types of formation damage in CCS projects
    • Topic 2 – Halite growth in saline aquifers and reduced CO2 injectivity
    • Topic 3 – CO2 storage in basalt: summary of the CarbFix project
    • Topic 4 – Why solid sequestration of CO2 occurs in basalt and contrast to geochemical processes sedimentary hosts for CO2
    • Topic 5 – Summary of the topics covered in the geochemistry of CCS

The Hydrogen Landscape: Production, Policy and Regulation (E575)

Tutor(s)

Katriona Edlmann: Chancellor’s Fellow in Energy, University of Edinburgh

Overview

Future energy scenarios foresee a prominent and growing role for hydrogen. Demand is likely to rapidly exceed the capacity of typical above-ground energy storage technologies, necessitating the need for the geological storage of hydrogen in engineered hard rock caverns, solution mined salt caverns, depleted gas fields and saline aquifers. This course will provide participants with an overview of the current hydrogen landscape, including its likely role in the energy transition, production and economic challenges.

Duration and Logistics

Classroom version: A 1-day course comprising a mix of lectures, case studies and exercises. The manual will be provided in digital format and participants will be required to bring a laptop or tablet computer to follow the lectures and exercises.

Virtual version: Two 4-hour interactive online sessions presented over two days (mornings in North America and afternoons in Europe). Digital course notes and exercise materials will be distributed to participants before the course. Some exercises may be completed by participants off-line.

Level and Audience

Fundamental. Intended for subsurface scientists involved in hydrogen projects.

Objectives

You will learn to:

  1. Appreciate the role of geoscience in the hydrogen economy and the contribution hydrogen can make to the energy transition in support of Net Zero emission targets.
  2. Describe the different processes involved in hydrogen production and the associated lifecycle carbon intensity of this production.
  3. Recall details of the developing hydrogen supply chains, including infrastructure considerations, distribution networks and pathways for market growth.

Course Content

  • Role of hydrogen in the energy transition (is it more than the last 20% of clean power?)
    • energy storage to balance renewables
    • decarbonizing hard to abate sectors
  • Energy system integration
    • power to X
    • existing energy system overview
    • renewable energy and curtailment
    • grid scale energy storage requirements / challenges
  • Policy and regulatory landscape
    • policy drivers
    • legal and regulatory frameworks
    • licencing and permitting
    • safety standards and gas regulations
    • just transition
  • Existing / planned hydrogen projects globally
  • Hydrogen production – the full rainbow
    • natural hydrogen accumulations (white hydrogen)
    • methane (SMR), autothermal (ATR) reformation, partial oxidation (POX) or pyrolysis of hydrocarbons (grey hydrogen) and coal (brown / black hydrogen)
    • above with capture and secure geological storage of the CO2 (blue hydrogen)
    • electrolysis using renewable electricity (green hydrogen)
    • metabolic microbial processes using light energy to produce hydrogen from water
    • fermentation of biomass to produce hydrogen
    • pyrolysis or gasification of biomass
    • photoelectrochemical Water Splitting
    • Solar Thermal Water Splitting (yellow hydrogen)
    • electrolysis powered by nuclear energy (pink hydrogen)
    • in-situ hydrocarbon combustion
    • methane pyrolysis to produce hydrogen and solid carbon (turquoise hydrogen)
  • Lifecycle carbon intensity of hydrogen production
  • Storing and moving hydrogen
    • properties of hydrogen as an energy carrier
    • pressures of hydrogen within the entire chain
    • storing compressed / liquid hydrogen (line pack – tanks – geological)
    • hydrogen carriers and adsorbents, including ammonia, liquid organic hydrogen, metal hydrides
    • pipelines
      • suitability to hydrogen (e.g. embrittlement)
      • hydrogen blending / de-blending
      • repurposed vs new systems
  • Costs and efficiency penalties
    • hydrogen production methods
    • cost, efficiency and infrastructure considerations in compression and liquification application.
  • Developing hydrogen supply chains for a just energy transition (uses)
    • approaches to hydrogen market growth
    • scaling up
    • development of the hydrogen distribution and storge infrastructure
    • industrial clusters and hubs
    • hydrogen value chain
  • innovation and technology opportunities
  • hydrogen / carbon trading
  • Impact of increased hydrogen concentrations form fugitive emissions in the atmosphere
  • Assessment of critical mineral needs in batteries versus fuel cells

Activities include: Using the MacKay Carbon Calculator, creating pathways to find out how we might reduce the UK’s greenhouse gas emissions to Net Zero by 2050 and beyond, and highlight the opportunities for hydrogen; Estimating emission savings associated with a range of different hydrogen switching options.

Seals, Containment and Risk for CCS and Hydrogen Storage (E570)

Tutor(s)

Richard Swarbrick: Manager, Swarbrick GeoPressure

Overview

This course examines the nature and properties of seals as they relate to containment for permanent storage of CO2 and cyclical storage of hydrogen and/or compressed air. The course will provide a grounding in the geomechanics of seals and how seals and their properties are created in the subsurface. While most data and analysis relating to seals has been acquired from and applied to the containment of oil and gas, this course will show how such data can be applied to CCS and gas storage. Particular attention will be given to the different sealing requirements of CO2 and hydrogen relative to oil/gas and water.

Duration and Logistics

Classroom version: A 2-day course comprising a mix of lectures, case studies and exercises. The manual will be provided in digital format and participants will be required to bring a laptop or tablet computer to follow the lectures and exercises.

Virtual version: Four 3.5-hour interactive online sessions presented over 2 or 4 days comprising a mix of lectures and exercises. The course manual will be provided in digital format.

Level and Audience

Advanced. This course is aimed at geoscientists and engineers working in energy transition with responsibility for projects to assess and manage gas storage

Objectives

You will learn to:

  1. Evaluate the nature of containment seals and their properties in the deep earth (>1km/0.62 miles below surface).
  2. Apply knowledge of seal integrity to estimates of column heights and associated storage volumes.
  3. Assess the concepts of seal integrity and how to predict risk of seal breach / failure.
  4. Appraise current knowledge of seal behaviour.
  5. Manage the requirements for permanent CO2 storage using CCS with short-term / cyclic storage for hydrogen / air.
  6. Characterize data requirements and limitations to assess seal integrity and risk (mainly sourced from oil / gas boreholes).
  7. Evaluate different trapping requirements for gas storage (currently data-poor) relative to oil / gas (historically data-rich).

Course Content

Sessions 1 and 2

  • Objectives and overview of seals in context of CO2 and hydrogen / compressed air
  • Containment – membrane seals: principles and relationship with gas column height and storage volume
  • Containment – hydraulic seals: principles and relationship to regional and local stress fields; difference between regional top seal and fault seal behaviour
  • Geomechanics of seals
  • Rock type and rock properties that make satisfactory seals
  • Seal integrity: relationships between rocks and fluid stresses; identification of seals, including use of pore fluid pressure; evidence of seal failure; and timescales of sealing contrasting geological and human timescales
  • Seal capacity: modelling seal behaviour; mechanical earth models; and relationship with storage volumes
  • Seal failure: failure criteria and migration mitigation

Sessions 3 and 4

  • Data used to identify seals, including knowledge of rock properties. Use of borehole and seismic data, and data that can be used for calibration of earth models
  • Seal risk – safe operating limits: regulatory frameworks and public perception
  • Seal risk case study
  • CCS – saline aquifers and case studies
  • CCS – depleted fields and case studies
  • Hydrogen (and compressed air) storage and case studies
  • Many sessions include short exercises to emphasise learnings

The Low Carbon Business for Operations Staff: Business, Geoscience and Engineering Fundamentals (E569)

Tutor(s)

Benjamin Klooss: Camberwell Energy

Gioia Falcone: Rankine Chair of Energy and Engineering, University of Glasgow;

Bob Harrison: Director, Sustainable Ideas Ltd

Overview

This course aims to provide a broad overview of notable non-technical and technical themes for those operations staff new to low-carbon business projects. The course will be divided into three principal themes: business, geoscience and engineering; and will look to combine knowledge from across the different low-carbon business streams (CCS, geothermal and hydrogen). Participants will come away with a broad knowledge of the business landscape and of the subsurface and operational engineering challenges and limitations.

Duration and Logistics

Classroom version: Three half-day sessions, totalling 1.5 days in-person classroom training.

Virtual version: Three 4-hour interactive online sessions presented over 3 days (mornings in North America and afternoons in Europe). In each case a digital manual will be provided for the participants.

Level and Audience

Fundamental. This course is aimed at production and surface engineering technical staff and managers with a background in oil and gas but limited exposure to the low-carbon business, who want an overview and appreciation of this new energy landscape, the skills required and the technical challenges.

Objectives

You will learn to:

  1. Outline the current and likely future status of the European energy mix, including new energy sources and the drive towards Net Zero.
  2. Understand the regulatory, policy and financial drivers for adopting these new energy sources.
  3. Apply learnings from oil and gas projects to the subsurface and engineering challenges posed by these new energy systems.
  4. Recall the basic principles of heat generation in the subsurface and the associated key characteristics of geothermal resources and reservoirs.
  5. Appreciate the risks and uncertainties in developing geothermal resources.
  6. Understand the subsurface requirements for CO2 storage and the associated leakage risk.
  7. Assess the volumetrics of CO2 storage and flow away from injector wells, as controlled by reservoir properties.
  8. Describe the different geological storage options for hydrogen, their capacity and storage integrity challenges.
  9. Appreciate how the handling of CO2, hydrogen and heat is different from oil and gas.
  10. Outline the different operational facilities requirements of new energy types, including design and lifetime.

Course Content

The course is split into three parts: business, geoscience and engineering.

Part 1: Business for the energy transition

  • Global energy demand, current and future projections by sector to 2050, with a focus on Europe. Demand for electricity vs primary energy
  • Economic aspects of renewables (e.g. profitability, size of the application vs economics)
  • Global and European energy supply – current and projected levels of primary energy supply, including hydrocarbons, nuclear and renewables (e.g. geothermal, wind, hydrogen, solar and bioenergy). European estimates of domestically produced vs imported total primary energy
  • European climate policy objectives. Decarbonization targets for the EU and separately for the UK. Scale of the low-carbon energy transition that is required in Europe. Discussion of circular economy within this context

This part of the course will be anchored around case studies to illustrate opportunities, policy drivers and commercial factors:

  1. CCS in the Netherlands
  2. Hydrogen in the Netherlands
  3. (Options) German commercial and industrial heat sector, UK offshore wind or UK rooftop solar

Each case study will discuss:

  • Specific market context to outline the scale of the opportunity
  • Policies, regulations and support instruments directly affecting the particular business opportunity in the case study country (for example, carbon price, contract-for difference, subsidies)
  • Potential business models and commercial risks. This will include high-level descriptions of the factors determining business viability, profitability and limiting factors

Part 2: Geoscience

  • Fluid properties and phase behavior of carbon dioxide, hydrogen and water, compared to hydrocarbons, at different operating pressures and temperatures. Flow assurance challenges of transporting and storing these fluids. Impact of impurities on fluid properties
  • Geothermal energy and summary of associated geoscience, including subsurface heat transfer processes, use of low- and high-enthalpy resources, and underground thermal energy storage. Exploration and appraisal of geothermal resources. Geothermal project risks and uncertainty from the subsurface perspective
  • Carbon geo-sequestration and the various trapping mechanisms that contain the injected CO2 underground. Subsurface storage site requirements, screening, selection, and estimation of CO2 storage capacity. Leakage risk and the design and implementation of appropriate monitoring. Lessons learnt from operational CCS projects from dedicated subsurface storage and CO2-EOR perspectives
  • Hydrogen – geoscience summary of natural hydrogen occurrences. Comparison of underground storage options (salt cavern, depleted hydrocarbon reservoir, aquifer) with comparisons of capacity, injectivity and productivity, inventory monitoring, challenges and risks

Part 3: Engineering

  • Geothermal – well types, completion design and operational challenges compared to hydrocarbons. Infrastructure considerations depending on end-use. Materials and engineering challenges posed by temperature, geochemical and microbial issues, and corresponding HSE aspects
  • CCS – well types and different needs to those of hydrocarbon production. Required infrastructure to handle, transport and inject CO2 effectively and safely, and meet industry norms and regulations
  • Hydrogen – the different ‘colors’ of hydrogen production, with respect to inputs and by-products, round-trip efficiencies, carbon footprint and HSE aspects. Requirements for wells and surface facilities to meet hydrogen duty needs and regulatory standards
  • Re-purposing of existing surface and subsurface infrastructure to help accelerate delivery of and reduce capital outlay for the energy transition. Review of each element in the supply chain from pipelines to facilities, via wells to the reservoir. Interdependency between reuse and decommissioning of infrastructure

The geoscience and engineering parts of the course will feature case studies from around the world to illustrate the challenges of treatment, transportation and underground storage for the new energy systems.