World-class training for the modern energy industry

Practical Introduction to Geophysics and Seismic Interpretation (G063)

Tutor(s)

John Randolph: Consultant Geophysicist

Overview

This class provides an overview of seismic wave propagation, discusses important issues related to seismic data acquisition and imaging, and introduces students to practical seismic interpretation workflows including mapping techniques. Additional topics such as seismic attributes, borehole geophysics, reservoir characterization and reservoir surveillance are also included. Technical discussions will cover both conventional and unconventional reservoir topics along with some discussion of the relevance of geophysical methods to new energy systems.

The balance of topics covered and content can be discussed and refined with the client if required.

Objectives

You will learn to:

  1. Explain the fundamentals of seismic wave propagation and factors affecting resolution at the reservoir level.
  2. Calibrate seismic data using well data.
  3. Communicate effectively with data acquisition and processing specialists.
  4. Execute an effective interpretation workflow for a 2-D seismic project.
  5. Apply interpretation fundamentals to design a 3-D workflow on a workstation.
  6. Utilize multiple offset volumes to perform reconnaissance AVO analysis.
  7. Apply basic seismic sequence stratigraphic interpretation principles.
  8. Perform time-to-depth conversions using simplified velocity models.
  9. Utilize common seismic attributes to characterize reservoirs.
  10. Generate volumetric estimates of recoverable reserves (EUR).

Level and Audience

Fundamental. Intended for early career geoscientists and for technical support staff who work with seismic data.

Duration and Logistics

Classroom version: 6 days; a mix of lectures (65%) and hands-on exercises (35%). The course will be scheduled over two consecutive weeks to suit the client. The manual will be provided in digital format and participants will be required to bring a laptop or tablet computer to follow the lectures. Exercises are built around a publicly available dataset and comprise a ‘red thread’ that runs through the class.

Course Content

Workflow training begins with the calibration of seismic data, the establishment of correlation loops and structural contouring. More advanced workflows, including depth conversion and the practical application of AVO using multiple offset volumes in the interpretation process, will be demonstrated. Direct hydrocarbon indicators and basic principles of seismic sequence stratigraphy will also be discussed during the lectures and exercise sessions.

Daily Agenda

Day 1

Introduction

  • What is seismic data? What can it do? What are its limitations?
    • Introduction to seismic wave propagation and elastic behavior of rocks
    • How is seismic data recorded?
    • What is required to generate useful subsurface images?
    • What can go wrong?
    • The interpreter’s role in working with acquisition and processing specialists
  • Reservoir responses to seismic waves
  • Seismic resolution
  • Seismic reflectivity (Exercise 1.1)
  • Synthetic seismograms
  • Interpretation workflow (Exercises 2.1, 2.2, 2.3)
    • Understanding the basin
    • Calibration
    • Tying correlation loops

Day 2

  • Seismic acquisition
  • Data processing (Exercises 1.2, 1.3)
  • Seismic imaging (migration)
  • Project management & data loading
  • Reflectivity changes with angle – AVO
  • Elastic reflectivity response
  • Seismic amplitude case histories (Exercise 1.4)

Day 3

  • Structural Interpretation workflow (Exercises 2.4, 2.5, 2.6)
    • Mapping lineaments
    • Using time slices
    • Mapping the interpretation
  • Seismic inversion methods
  • Introduction to Quantitative Interpretation
  • Quiz – Waves, reflectivity, inversion, acquisition, processing

Day 4

  • Review day 3 quiz topics
  • Review interpretation exercises 2.1– 2.4
  • Team presentations of mapping exercises 2.5 & 2.6
  • Using flattened seismic images (workflow)
  • Introduction to seismic sequence stratigraphy
  • Stratigraphic interpretation (exercise)
  • Pore pressure estimation

Day 5

  • Seismic velocity measurements
  • Vertical seismic Profiles (VSPs)
  • Velocity interpretation, exercise 2.7
  • Workflow options for time/depth conversion
  • Interpretation workflows on a workstation
  • Seismic attribute applications (including AVO)
  • Estimation of recoverable reserves in a reservoir (EUR)

Day 6

  • Fractured reservoirs
  • Distributed acoustic sensing (DAS) 4D
  • Reservoir surveillance
  • Cross borehole tomography in horizontal wells
  • Characterization of shale reservoirs
  • Case history discussions
  • CO2 injection monitoring
  • Geothermal reservoirs

Wrap-up discussion

List of exercises

  • Seismic Well Tie Exercise: Using synthetic seismograms or VSPs.
  • Interpretation Exercise: Constructing an interpretation baseline for a project.
  • Interpretation Exercise: Tying interpretation loops for multiple horizons.
  • Interpretation Exercise: Constructing a lineament map to guide the interpretation.
  • Interpretation Exercise: Generating a structure map.
  • Interpretation Exercise: Construction and use of isochron maps.
  • Interpretation Exercise: Using 3-D time slices to validate an interpretation.
  • Interpretation Exercise: Using time slices to validate an interpretation.
  • Interpretation Exercise: Use of direct H/C indicators to estimate reservoir size.

Quality Control of Land Seismic Processing (G079)

Tutor(s)

Robert Hardy: Chief Geophysicist, Tonnta Energy Limited

Overview

This course will provide participants with fundamentals needed to liaise with specialists and discuss workflows and quality control for land seismic data processing. Using modern case histories and basic theory, the course covers fundamentals, established workflows and advanced technology. Demonstrations will use interactive processing tools to improve the students’ understanding of the latest techniques and how to quality control effectively and efficiently to meet their objectives.

Objectives

You will learn to:

  1. Discuss the most common land seismic acquisition and processing techniques used in seismic exploration and production and become more proficient in the terminology used to describe them.
  2. Recognise seismic processing parameter selection for specific objectives such as amplitude interpretation for exploration and reservoir characterisation.
  3. Discuss quality control of land seismic processing workflows covering data preparation, parameterisation, noise & multiple suppression, velocity model building, imaging and post-migration processing.
  4. Become aware of newer acquisition and processing techniques alongside their potential benefits & pitfalls.

Level and Audience

Fundamental. This course is aimed towards geoscientists seeking fundamentals of land seismic processing methods and those who wish to more effectively liaise with specialists and apply quality control. We start from first principals, but it is helpful if participants have a basic knowledge of land seismic acquisition and processing terminology and are actively working with seismic data.

Duration and Logistics

Classroom: A 2-day course comprising a mix of lectures and case studies. The manual will be provided in digital format and participants will be required to bring a laptop or tablet computer to follow the lectures and exercises.

Virtual version: Four 3-hour interactive online sessions presented over 4 days comprising lectures, discussion and demonstrations using case histories to illustrate the basic theory and impact of the techniques discussed. A digital manual and exercise materials will be distributed to participants before the course. Some reading and several exercises can be completed by participants off-line.

Course Content

Session 1: Land Seismic Processing Workflow

  • Seismic refresher including a brief overview of basic wave theory, noise suppression, velocity analysis and QC, stacking, imaging and resolution.
  • Basic techniques such as frequency analysis, convolution, sampling, aliasing, interpolation and regularization.
  • Quality control of data conditioning techniques including surface consistent deconvolution, trace scaling, automatic gain control, frequency filtering.

Session 2: Survey Design basics to optimize resolution, denoise and imaging

  • Current seismic acquisition trends.
  • Quality control of formats, geometry and amplitude corrections.
  • Noise: types, suppression and quality control for land seismic data.
  • FK, FX, radon, tau-p analysis: examples, pitfalls and quality control.

Session 3: Imaging and Earth Model Workflow

  • Basic migration, prestack time migration and gather generation.
  • Correcting for velocity variation and complex sub-surface: Prestack depth Migration and full waveform inversion (FWI).
  • Statics: elevation, refraction, tomographic and reflection based residual statics are compared using a series of synthetic and recent real case histories to emphasis quality control rules of thumb.
  • Tomography techniques and role of interpreter in anisotropic velocity model building and quality control featuring recent land case histories.

Session 4: Post-Migration Data Enhancement and Introduction to Specialised Processing

  • Case histories featuring post-migration data enhancement, 3D survey merging and gather conditioning for future AVO analysis and inversion.
  • Specialised processing: Multicomponent, Elastic and 4D concepts
  • Summary of quality control stages, tools leading to better and more reliable data quality.

Additional Topics and Material:

The following additional sections are included online but not discussed in detail during the class:

  • Seismic data formats: seismic and navigation formats and quality control.
  • Workstation Data loading: including common pitfalls.
  • Processing tenders overview.

Workshop in the Seismic Expression of Carbonates (G080)

Tutor(s)

Gene Rankey: Professor, University of Kansas.

Overview

The aim of this course is to provide a general overview of the basic principles of carbonate systems and their expression in seismic data, and to demonstrate its utility for exploration and production. The course will include conceptual models, practical hands-on exercises, and demonstrations of the utility of seismic data and derived products. Key examples will illustrate how seismic stratigraphy and seismic attribute analysis can be used to assess reservoir fairways, subdivide a reservoir, constrain reservoir models, and generate high-resolution, geologically constrained predictions of reservoir systems. An important part of this course will be to draw attention to unique aspects of carbonates and how they might differ from siliciclastic from pore to basin scales.

Objectives

You will learn to:

  1. Establish a working knowledge of carbonate sediment and depositional systems.
  2. Assess carbonate seismic attributes, their general classes, and situations in which different types of attributes are most appropriate.
  3. Evaluate quantitative applications of seismic attributes to map seismic facies and porosity in carbonate reservoirs.
  4. Recognize the expression of carbonates in three-dimensions, how these patterns reflect dynamic stratigraphic evolution, and how these patterns can be related to reservoir trends.
  5. Identify the variation and controls on carbonate reservoir architecture in different system tracts.
  6. Appreciate how carbonate petrophysics influences the seismic response of carbonates.
  7. Appraise the different types of carbonate platform on seismic data and assess the presence of key seismic facies.
  8. Illustrate the seismic geometries of carbonate ramps and rimmed shelves and their possible reservoir character.

Level and Audience

Intermediate. The course is aimed at geologists and geophysicists working on carbonate exploration and production projects. No prior knowledge of carbonates is assumed but participants should have some background in the geosciences.

Duration and Logistics

Classroom version: 2 day classroom course comprising presentations, exercises and case studies. Course notes and exercise materials will be distributed to participants during the course. The manual will be provided in digital format and participants will be required to bring a laptop or tablet computer to follow the lectures and exercises

Virtual version: Four 3.5-hour interactive online sessions presented over four days (mornings in North America and afternoons in Europe). Digital course notes and exercise materials will be distributed to participants before the course. Some exercises may be completed by participants off-line.

Course Content

Introduction to the Course

Overview of Carbonate Sediment and Depositional Systems

  • Carbonate factories
  • Skeletal and non-skeletal carbonate grains
  • Differences from siliciclastics
  • Introduce facies models ramps, rimmed shelves, isolated platforms
  • “Unique” aspects of carbonates (produced in place, diagenetically unstable, complex pores, etc)

Carbonate Sequence and Seismic Stratigraphy

  • Basic concepts and terminology: introduction to stratigraphic hierarchy, parasequences, systems tracts, sequences; similarities and differences with siliciclastics
  • Stratal terminations; major surfaces in seismic; features that look like carbonates…but are not

Exercise – defining sequences and unique aspects of carbonates

Seismic Resolution and Seismic Modeling

  • The strengths and limitations of seismic data
  • Illustrate how geometric modeling provides insights into possible pitfalls, and how to avoid them
  • Case studies: Cretaceous, Italy and Bahamas; Permian, west Texas

Exercise: Stratal terminations

Seismic Geometry of Isolated Carbonate Platforms

  • Introduce and illustrate seismic geometries, recognition of seismic sequence boundaries
  • Describe common seismic facies (sequence-based)
  • Potential impact on reservoir character and production

Exercise: Seismic expression of isolated platforms and some challenges

Carbonate Pores and Petrophysics

  • Pore types and petrophysical classes (Choquette-Pray/Lucia)
  • Diagenetic environments and products
  • Influence of cements of velocity
  • Relation between diagenesis and sequence stratigraphy (sequence boundaries, diagenetic alteration related to sequence boundaries, role of climate; spatial variability in diagenesis)
  • Understanding the seismic response of carbonates requires at least a fundamental understanding and appreciation of these principles

Exercise: Petrophysics and carbonates

Seismic Expression of Carbonate Ramps

  • Introduce and illustrate seismic geometries, recognition of seismic sequence boundaries
  • Describe common seismic facies (sequence-based)
  • Potential impact on reservoir character and production

Exercise: Seismic expression of carbonate ramps and some challenges

Seismic Expression of Carbonate Rimmed Shelves

  • Introduce and illustrate seismic geometries, recognition of seismic sequence boundaries
  • Describe common seismic facies (sequence-based)
  • Potential impact on reservoir character and production
  • Case studies: Jurassic, Atlantic margins; West Australia

Exercise: Miocene, Bahamas

Seismic Attributes

  • Define seismic attributes, their general classes, and situations in which different types of attributes are most appropriate
  • Illustrate examples of the qualitative use of seismic attributes to understand carbonate reservoir systems
  • Discuss quantitative applications of seismic attributes to map seismic facies and porosity in carbonate reservoirs
  • Highlight limitations on seismic attribute analysis

Exercise: Seismic expression of carbonates and some challenges

Seismic Geomorphology of Carbonates

  • The expression of carbonates in three-dimensions, how these patterns reflect dynamic stratigraphic evolution, and how these patterns can be related to reservoir trends
  • Time slices, horizon slices, volumetric interpretation
  • Volumetric analysis of seismic data

Exercise: Seismic expression of carbonates in three dimensions

Advanced Seismic Attributes

  • In-depth case study from the Devonian of Western Canadian Basin demonstrates the application of seismic modeling to enhance interpretation. This interpretation of high-frequency sequences is followed by seismic attribute analysis to qualitatively predict reservoir distribution and properties

Onshore Seismic Processing and Imaging (G081)

Tutor(s)

Ron Kerr, Independent seismic processing QC consultant and David Kessler, President of SeismicCity.

Overview

This course will introduce the fundamentals of land seismic acquisition including receiver types and their spectrum indication. Land-based seismic data presents unique challenges, and the course will subsequently follow the processes after acquisition to include all the main processing steps of a modern land 3D dataset.

Duration and Logistics

Fundamental. Intended for geoscientists who work with seismic data and are also required to understand land seismic acquisition and processing projects and work with imaging professionals.

Objectives

You will learn to:

  1. List common onshore seismic source and receiver types and their spectrum indication.
  2. Describe source/receiver line spacing & intervals and their relationship to acquisition footprints and seismic resolution.
  3. Have a clear picture of main processing steps affecting phase and amplitude and understand the concepts of surface-consistency.
  4. Explain in plain language how FWI works and the key factors to velocity model building.
  5. List the types of data used in data processing.
  6. Identify the main components of the seismic wavefield and what they are used for.
  7. Describe the main collections/domains for manipulating seismic data.
  8. Explain the main steps in a processing sequence.
  9. List the main types of noise and describe attenuation methods for these.
  10. Describe the various velocities used in seismic and how to access them.
  11. Identify multiples and explain methods to attenuate them.
  12. Discuss the need for regularization.
  13. Describe the migration process and list the difference between Time/Depth Migrations.

Level and Audience

Classroom version: A 2-day classroom course day including a mix of lectures and exercises. The manual will be provided in digital format and participants will be required to bring a laptop or tablet computer to follow the lectures and exercises.

Virtual version: Four 3.5-hour interactive online sessions presented over four days (mornings in North America and afternoons in Europe). Digital course notes and exercise materials will be distributed to participants before the course. Some exercises may be completed by participants off-line.

A 2-day classroom course day including a mix of lectures and exercises. The manual will be provided in digital format and participants will be required to bring a laptop or tablet computer to follow the lectures and exercises.

Virtual version: Four 3.5-hour interactive online sessions presented over four days (mornings in North America and afternoons in Europe). Digital course notes and exercise materials will be distributed to participants before the course. Some exercises may be completed by participants off-line.

Course Content

Session 1: Onshore seismic data acquisition and processing

We will start with the basics and fundamentals of land seismic acquisition and an overview of basic seismic terms. Common onshore seismic source and receiver types and their spectrum indication will be presented.

We will provide a clear picture of main processing steps affecting phase and amplitude and understand the concepts of surface-consistency. These steps include explanation of all the terms you may have heard of but might not be entirely familiar in understanding including refraction statics, denoise, deconvolution, velocities, and 5D interpolation, as well as many steps that are not as well-known such as: geophone compensation, geometry qc, and residual statics. The main types of noise will be shown and we will describe attenuation methods.

The various data types used in data processing will be presented. Reviewing the main steps included in a processing sequence, data examples will be used. This includes data regularization. The examples include simplified graphics and real-data examples. This behind-the-scenes look is important; decisions made during pre-processing can affect any prospect. You will learn why these steps are run and what to look for when a vendor is processing your land dataset. No math is required.

Session 2: Seismic wave propagation, migration, velocities, anisotropy and model building

We will start this session by reviewing seismic wave propagation in Elastic media. Seismic forward modeling describes wave propagation in the sub-surface is inherent in processing. We will identify the main components of the seismic wavefield and what they are used for.

Using both wave and ray equations, we move to discuss how these equations are used for application of depth migration. We will describe how ray based and wave-based migrations work and will explain the differences between RTM based on the acoustic wave equation and the elastic wave equation. The difference between Time and Depth Migration will be explained.

Next, we will cover the foundations and use of velocity estimation techniques and will analyze the advantages and limitations of each. We will describe the various velocities used in seismic imaging and how to they are constructed from the seismic data. We will demonstrate ray-based reflection tomography as well as wave based Full Waveform Inversion (FWI). Special attention will be given to describe how each method is used in velocity model building.

We will then review anisotropy used in seismic processing and imaging. A complete workflow including all steps used in model building and depth imaging project will be provided.

 

An Introduction to Offshore Seismic Data Acquisition (G041)

Tutor(s)

Malcolm Lansley: Consultant Geophysicis

Overview

Participants will learn the steps necessary to plan successful offshore seismic acquisition projects and will also learn how to work with contractors to ensure that projects are executed safely and according to plan.

Duration and Logistics

Classroom version: A 1-day classroom course comprising a mix of lectures (90%) and exercises (10%). An optional workshop where a client’s project data may be reviewed can be added. The manual will be provided in digital format and participants will be required to bring a laptop or tablet computer to follow the lectures and exercises. Multiple choice quizzes will be utilized to reinforce learnings.

Virtual version: Two 4-hour interactive online sessions presented over 2 days (mornings in North America and afternoons in Europe). A digital manual and exercise materials will be distributed to participants before the course. Some reading and several exercises are to be completed by participants off-line. Multiple choice quizzes will be utilized to reinforce learnings.

Level and Audience

Fundamental. Intended for early career geoscientists and technical support staff who routinely work with seismic data and who would like to manage seismic acquisition projects and interact effectively with data acquisition professionals.

Objectives

You will learn to:

  1. Revisit the fundamental principles of seismic wave propagation.
  2. Review seismic vessel and equipment options for data acquisition and logistics in different marine environments.
  3. Understand key project parameters required to design a successful project.
  4. Review the bid tender process and be able to recommend contract specifications.
  5. Outline a management plan for Health, Safety and Environmental compliance.
  6. Appreciate the importance of employing qualified field QC personnel to ensure the successful completion of data acquisition projects.

Course Content

  1. Review of seismic wave propagation
  2. Establish project objectives
  3. Seismic vessels
  4. Source and recording equipment considerations for geophysical objectives and different operational environments
  5. Why broadband recording is important
  6. Project design issues
    • Resolution limits
    • Sampling
    • Migration aperture
    • Trace density
    • Azimuth and offset requirements for optimal imaging
  7. Health, Safety and Environmental concerns (in particular for marine mammals)
  8. Bidding process and interaction with contractors
  9. QC and supervision

An Introduction to Onshore Seismic Data Acquisition (G040)

Tutor(s)

Malcolm Lansley: Consultant Geophysicist

Overview

Participants will learn the steps necessary to plan successful onshore seismic acquisition projects and will also learn how to work with contractors to ensure that projects are executed safely and according to plan.

Duration and Logistics

Classroom version: A 1-day classroom course comprising a mix of lectures (90%) and exercises (10%). An optional workshop where a client’s project data may be reviewed can be added. The manual will be provided in digital format and participants will be required to bring a laptop or tablet computer to follow the lectures and exercises. Multiple choice quizzes will be utilized to reinforce learnings.

Virtual version: Two 4-hour interactive online sessions presented over 2 days (mornings in North America and afternoons in Europe). A digital manual and exercise materials will be distributed to participants before the course. Some reading and several exercises are to be completed by participants off-line. Multiple choice quizzes will be utilized to reinforce learnings.

Level and Audience

Fundamental. Intended for early career geoscientists and technical support staff who routinely work with seismic data and who desire to manage seismic acquisition projects and interact effectively with data acquisition professionals.

Objectives

You will learn to:

  1. Revisit the fundamental principles of seismic wave propagation.
  2. Review equipment options for data acquisition and logistics.
  3. Understand key project parameters required to design a successful project.
  4. Review the bid tender process and recommend contract specifications.
  5. Outline a management plan for Health, Safety and Environmental compliance.
  6. Appreciate the importance of employing qualified field QC personnel to ensure the successful completion of data acquisition projects.

Course Content

  1. Review of seismic wave propagation
  2. Sources
  3. Equipment selection
  4. Establish project objectives
  5. Why broadband recording is important
  6. Project design issues
    • Resolution limits
    • Sampling
    • Migration aperture
    • Trace density
    • Azimuth and offset
    • Expanding the recording spectrum
    • High density recording
    • Optimizing survey design
  7. Health, Safety and Environmental concerns
  8. Bidding process and interaction with contractors
  9. QC and supervision

The Essentials of Rock Physics and Seismic Amplitude Interpretation (G075)

Tutor(s)

Eleanor Oldham: Merlin Energy Resources Ltd

Overview

This course introduces participants to the principles, workflows and limitations of interpreting seismic data using rock physics. The principal topics to be covered include how AVO works, what should the interpreter expect, rock physics inputs for seismic models, rock properties from seismic and rock physics in prospect risking.

Duration and Logistics

Classroom version: A 4-day in-person course, comprising a mix of lectures and interactive learning through worked Excel examples. The course manual will be provided in digital format.

Virtual version: Eight 3-hour live online sessions presented over 8 days (mornings in North America and afternoons in Europe), comprising a mix of lectures and interactive learning through worked Excel examples. The course manual will be provided in digital format.

Level and Audience

Fundamental. The course is largely aimed at geoscientists, reservoir engineers and petrophysicists wanting an introduction to the subject of rock physics and seismic amplitude interpretation.

Objectives

You will learn to:

  • Construct a simple AVO model and apply it to seismic interpretation in different AVO settings.
  • Illustrate the characteristics of seismic wavelets and approaches to synthetic well ties with reference to models.
  • Demonstrate the use of rock physics for seismic modelling and Gassmann’s equation in fluid substitution.
  • Tackle a variety of rock physics issues, including fluid substitution in shaly and laminated sands, modelling of tight sands and log editing.
  • Differentiate AVO techniques and practical AVO issues, including the potential for interpretation ambiguity and data quality.
  • Apply bandlimited impedance with respect to net pay prediction and their limitations.
  • Implement the use of Bayesian update to evaluate probability in inversion and risking.

Course Content

Session 1 – Introducing seismic modelling, rock properties and AVO

  • Seismic basics
  • How amplitude vs offset (AVO) works
  • A siliciclastic case study (variation of reflectivity style with depth; lithology and fluid trends on the AVO crossplot)

Session 2 – Interpretation scenarios – What should the interpreter expect?

  • An overview of AVO scenarios
  • Case study examples, including Class II/III high porosity failure example, Class IV overpressure example, Class IIp oil sand, layering and variable lithofacies effects
  • Fluid contacts
  • DHIs
  • Resolution and the problem of thickness prediction in thin beds

Session 3 – Wavelets and well ties

  • Characteristics of seismic wavelets
  • Sonic log calibration
  • Two approaches to synthetic well ties… White’s well seismic matching method and the adaptive method
  • Discussion of well tie issues, such as ‘stretch and squeeze’, positioning issues and stratigraphic filtering
  • Visual perception of phase
  • Model issues – a VTI example
  • Broadband wavelets

Session 4 – Rock physics inputs for seismic models

  • Overview of rock physics for seismic modelling
  • Data sources
  • Gassmann’s equation and fluid substitution – a worked example

Session 5 – Rock physics issues

  • Low saturation gas
  • Fluid substitution in shaly and laminated sands
  • Modelling of tight sands and multi-pore carbonates
  • Log editing
  • Rock characterization

Session 6 – AVO analysis

  • Overview of AVO techniques
  • Coordinate rotations for lithology and fluid discrimination
  • Reflectivity vs impedance
  • Practical AVO issues…the noise prone gradient
  • Offset dependent tuning
  • Lithofacies variation and the potential for interpretation ambiguity
  • The key issue of data quality
  • Discussion of post-processing data conditioning

Session 7 – Rock properties from seismic

  • Bandlimited impedance
  • Simple approaches to net pay prediction and their limitations
  • Calibration and probability issues in the application of seismic attributes
  • The nature of seismic trace inversion
  • Classical (‘best estimate’) inversion approaches and their limitations
  • Session 8 – Probabilistic inversion and rock physics in risking
  • Introducing the use of the Bayesian update to evaluate probability in inversion
  • Rock-physics-based approaches to inversion – JiFi and ODiSl
  • Bayesian update methods in the risking context

Seismic Processing Workflows (G072)

Tutor(s)

Robert Hardy: Chief Geophysicist, Tonnta Energy Limited

Overview

This course will provide participants with the skills needed to liaise with specialists and implement workflows for seismic data acquisition and processing. Using modern case histories and basic theory, the course covers fundamentals, established workflows and advanced technology. Participants will use interactive processing tools to improve their understanding of the latest techniques and learn how to apply them effectively and efficiently to meet their objectives.

Duration and Logistics

Classroom version: A 3-day in-person course, comprising a mix of lectures with examples (90%), laptop-based exercises and discussion (10%). The manual will be provided in digital format and participants will be required to bring a laptop or tablet computer to follow the lectures and exercises.

Virtual version: Six 3-hour interactive online sessions presented over 6 days (mornings in North America and afternoons in Europe), comprising a mix of lectures, discussion and interactive exercises using case histories to illustrate the basic theory and impact of the techniques discussed. The participants will use a series of web-based software modules to experience the processing options available and learn how to combine the basic tools together to build a flow which meets objectives. A digital manual and exercise materials will be distributed to participants before the course. Some reading and several exercises are to be completed by participants off-line.

Level and Audience

Intermediate. This course is aimed at geoscientists seeking an overview of seismic acquisition techniques and processing methods, and those who wish to liaise effectively with specialists to improve their decision making and deliver objectives. A geophysics refresher is provided but it is helpful if participants have a basic knowledge of seismic acquisition and processing terminology and are actively working with seismic data.

Objectives

You will learn to:

  1. Compare the most common seismic acquisition and processing techniques used in seismic exploration and production, and become more proficient in the terminology used to describe them.
  2. Establish how survey design, earth model building and selection of migration algorithm can affect accuracy of interpretation in depth.
  3. Optimize the impact of seismic processing parameter selection for specific objectives such as amplitude interpretation for exploration and reservoir characterization.
  4. Demonstrate a typical seismic processing workflow covering data preparation, parameterization, noise and multiple suppression, velocity model building, and the imaging process, discussing likely issues at each step.
  5. Compare newer acquisition and processing techniques alongside their potential benefits and pitfalls.
  6. Liaise effectively with specialists, develop workflows and optimize decisions based on quality and cost.

Course Content

Session 1: Workstation based workflow – objective setting

  • Seismic refresher, including a brief overview of basic wave theory, noise suppression, velocity model building, stacking, imaging and factors affecting resolution
  • Basic techniques, such as convolution, sampling, aliasing and interpolation
  • Simple data conditioning techniques, including trace scaling, automatic gain control and frequency and dip filtering

Session 2: Survey design and signal processing workflow

  • Technical aspects of survey design, featuring a basic survey design workflow and rules of thumb for orientation and azimuthal coverage, and designing surveys for both shallow and deeper targets
  • Amplitudes, frequency and wavelet processing, featuring case histories of designature, attenuation compensation and combining acquisition and processing solutions to obtain broadband data and improved resolution

Session 3: Noise and multiple suppression workflow

  • Noise: types, suppression and quality control in marine and land seismic data
  • FK, radon, tau-p analysis, machine learning techniques and quality control
  • Multiple suppression, quality control and interpretation, including predictive methods (deconvolution, shallow water demultiple), moveout methods (radon) and free surface multiple removal (2-D and 3-D SRME)
  • Modern case histories from land, shallow and deepwater environments

Session 4: Imaging workflow

  • Basic migration, prestack time migration and gather generation
  • Correcting for velocity variation and complex sub-surface: prestack depth migration
  • Algorithm choice: Kirchhoff single/multi arrival, Beam vs wavefield methods (including reverse time migration), least-squares migration
  • Anisotropy, including VTI, TTI, orthorhombic cases
  • Imaging with multiples, elastic imaging and future developments

Session 5: Velocity model building techniques for depth imaging and quality control

  • Statics: elevation, refraction, tomographic based statics are compared using a series of synthetic and recent real case histories
  • Full waveform inversion toolkit, quality control and recent case histories
  • Tomography techniques and role of interpreter in velocity model building and quality control, featuring recent case histories from North Sea and Atlantic margins

Session 6: Case histories and introduction to specialized processing

  • Case histories: complex topography, amplitude extraction and data conditioning workflow for reservoir characterization
  • Specialized processing: single sensor, OBC, elastic and 4-D methodologies
  • Meeting objectives, acquisition and processing methods for the future

Additional topics and material
The following additional sections are included online:

  • Seismic data formats: seismic and navigation formats
  • Workstation data loading: including common pitfalls
  • Processing tenders overview

The following optional resources can be made available:

  • Customization of training modules and exercises based on client data
  • Self-paced learning modules provided online in advance of in-person workshop-based sessions

 

Fundamentals of Seismic Processing (G071)

Tutor(s)

Robert Hardy: Chief Geophysicist, Tonnta Energy Limited

Overview

This course will provide participants with fundamentals needed to liaise with specialists and discuss workflows for seismic data acquisition and processing. Using modern case histories and basic theory, the course covers fundamentals, established workflows and advanced technology. Participants will use interactive processing tools to improve their understanding of the latest techniques, learn how to apply them effectively and efficiently to meet their objectives.

Duration and Logistics

Classroom version: A 2-day in-person course, comprising a mix of lectures with examples (90%), laptop-based exercises and discussion (10%). The manual will be provided in digital format and participants will be required to bring a laptop or tablet computer to follow the lectures and exercises.

Virtual version: Four 3-hour interactive online sessions presented over 4 days (mornings in North America and afternoons in Europe), comprising lectures, discussion and interactive exercises using case histories to illustrate the basic theory and impact of the techniques discussed. The participants will use a series of web-based software modules to experience the processing options available and learn how to combine the basic tools to build a flow which meets objectives. A digital manual and exercise materials will be distributed to participants before the course. Some reading and several exercises are to be completed by participants off-line.

Level and Audience

Fundamental. This course is aimed at geoscientists who wish to understand the fundamentals of seismic acquisition techniques and processing methods and to aid more effective liaison with specialists. We start from first principles, but it is helpful if participants have a basic knowledge of seismic acquisition and processing terminology and are actively working with seismic data.

Objectives

You will learn to:

  1. Discuss the most common seismic acquisition and processing techniques used in seismic exploration and production, and become more proficient in the terminology used to describe them.
  2. Outline how survey design, earth model building and selection of migration algorithm can affect accuracy of interpretation in depth.
  3. Recognize seismic processing parameter selection for specific objectives, such as amplitude interpretation for exploration and reservoir characterization.
  4. Discuss a typical seismic processing workflow covering data preparation, parameterization, noise and multiple suppression, velocity model building and the imaging process.
  5. Become aware of newer acquisition and processing techniques alongside their potential benefits and pitfalls.

Course Content

Session 1: Workstation based workflow – objective setting

  • Seismic refresher, including a brief overview of basic wave theory, noise suppression, velocity model building, stacking, imaging and resolution
  • Basic techniques, such as convolution, sampling, aliasing and regularization
  • Simple data conditioning techniques, including trace scaling, automatic gain control and frequency and dip filtering

Session 2: Survey design, signal processing and noise suppression workflow

  • Basic survey design workflow and rules of thumb for orientation and azimuthal coverage and designing surveys for both shallow and deeper targets
  • Wavelet processing including designature and deghosting
  • Noise: types, suppression and quality control in marine and land seismic data
  • Multiple suppression techniques, examples and quality control
  • Modern case histories from land, shallow and deepwater environments

Session 3: Imaging and earth model workflow

  • Basic migration, prestack time migration and gather generation
  • Correcting for velocity variation and complex sub-surface: prestack depth migration
  • Near surface techniques, such as statics and full waveform inversion (FWI)
  • Tomography techniques and role of interpreter in velocity model building and quality control, featuring recent case histories from North Sea and Atlantic margins

Session 4: Post-migration data enhancement and introduction to specialized processing

  • Case histories featuring post-migration data enhancement, survey merging and gather conditioning
  • Specialized processing: single sensor, node, elastic and 4-D concepts
  • Meeting objectives, acquisition and processing methods for the future

Additional topics and material
The following additional sections are included online:

  • Seismic data formats: seismic and navigation formats
  • Workstation data loading: including common pitfalls
  • Processing tenders overview

The following optional resources can be made available:

  • Customization of training modules and exercises based on client data
  • Self-paced learning modules provided online in advance of in-person workshop-based sessions

Fundamentals of Geophysics (G028)

Tutor(s)

John Randolph: Consultant Geophysicist

Overview

This class provides an overview of seismic technologies commonly used in exploration and production with a focus on conventional reservoirs. Participants will review case histories and discover how seismic imaging might add value to their projects.

Duration and Logistics

Classroom version: 1 day; a mix of lectures (85%) and a hands-on exercise (15%). The manual will be provided in digital format and participants will be required to bring a laptop or tablet computer to follow the lectures and exercise.

Virtual version: Two 4-hour interactive online sessions presented over 2 days (mornings in North America and afternoons in Europe). A digital manual and exercise materials will be distributed to participants before the course.

Level and Audience

Fundamental. Intended for engineers, supervisors and managers who desire a understanding of how various seismic technologies might be leveraged along with geological and engineering data to solve exploration and production problems.

Objectives

You will learn to:

  1. Understand how commonly used geophysical tools can add value to E&P projects.
  2. Discuss how seismic data responds to changes in rock properties.
  3. Explain the principle steps involved in seismic imaging and interpretation.
  4. Communicate effectively with team members regarding geophysical project objectives.

Course Content

  1. Why invest in seismic data?
  2. Reservoir response to seismic waves; what we should expect to see.
  3. Seismic acquisition & processing; how is it done, and at what cost?
  4. Seismic amplitude changes; what are they telling us about reservoirs?
  5. Seismic interpretation; what is involved?
  6. Examples of exploration, production, geothermal, and CO2 storage projects.