World-class training for the modern energy industry

Hydrogen Technology: Value Chain and Projects (E572)

Tutor(s)

Matt Healey: PACE CCS

Overview

This course is designed to provide the participants with a summary of the technical and engineering challenges within hydrogen energy, including production, storage and transport, in addition to associated risk and safety challenges.

Duration and Logistics

Classroom version: A 1-day in-person classroom course. An electronic copy of the manual will be provided by the tutor at the end of the course.

Virtual version: Three 2.5-hour interactive online sessions presented over 3 days (mornings in North America and afternoons in Europe), including a mix of lectures and discussion. The course manual will be provided in digital format.

Level and Audience

Advanced. This course is designed for all technical staff working on hydrogen projects with an emphasis on operations, facilities and engineering aspects.

Objectives

You will learn to:

  1. Outline the different ‘colours’ of hydrogen and how these are produced.
  2. Evaluate the technical challenges with hydrogen, including thermodynamic modelling of H2 mixtures.
  3. Review how H2 can be stored and transported safely.
  4. Outline the design specifications of H2 networks with a focus on pipelines, including material of construction and reuse of existing infrastructure.

Course Content

The course will cover the following topics and will be split into two or three sessions, depending on whether it is an in-person class or interactive on-line event.

Session 1

Hydrogen commodity strategy

  • Value of H2 and its strategic position in the energy transition
  • Economic study case: key takeaways, its challenges and conclusions

Hydrogen production

  • Green hydrogen
  • Blue hydrogen
  • Other colours

Technical challenges with hydrogen

  • Quantum effects and kinetics of isomer conversion
  • Thermodynamic modelling of H2-rich mixtures
  • What are the current engineering and scientific practices? Learnings from CERN and NASA
  • Energy content

Session 2

Large-scale storage and compression

  • Seasonal underground storage
  • Long-term pressurized storage
  • Types of compressors
  • Energy consumption

Hydrogen transport

  • Gas pipelines
  • Liquid bulk transport

Hydrogen carriers

  • LOHC
  • Ammonia
  • Methanol
  • Natural gas

Session 3

Material of construction

  • Material selection
  • Reuse of pipelines
  • Codes and standards

Risk and safety

  • Gas and flame detection
  • Fire and explosion risks session

Current projects worldwide and value chains

  • Description of current project in Europe
  • Blue CCS project
  • Integration with oil and gas
  • Green and blue hydrogen corridor

The Transportation and Geological Storage of Hydrogen (E576)

Tutor(s)

Katriona Edlmann: Chancellor’s Fellow in Energy, University of Edinburgh

Overview

The course will focus on the need for geological storage of hydrogen, introducing the geological storage options available for the secure storage and withdrawal of hydrogen from these different geological stores. The main body of the course will explore the key considerations involved in geological hydrogen storage, including hydrogen flow processes and thermodynamics; geomechanical responses to rapid injection and withdrawal cycles; geochemical and microbial interactions during storage; and the operational considerations and monitoring of hydrogen storage sites that may impact storage integrity, withdrawal rates and hydrogen purity.

Duration and Logistics

Classroom version: A 1.5-day course comprising a mix of lectures, case studies and exercises. The manual will be provided in digital format and participants will be required to bring a laptop or tablet computer to follow the lectures and exercises.

Virtual version: Three 4-hour interactive online sessions presented over three days (mornings in North America and afternoons in Europe). Digital course notes and exercise materials will be distributed to participants before the course. Some exercises may be completed by participants off-line.

Level and Audience

Advanced. The course is largely aimed at geoscientists, but engineers will also find the course instructive. Intended for sub-surface scientists, with an emphasis on geoscience topics. Participants will probably have a working knowledge of petroleum geoscience.

Objectives

You will learn to:

  1. Describe the different geological storage options available and their capacity and spatial constraints.
  2. Understand hydrogen as a fluid in the subsurface, including its thermodynamic and transport properties.
  3. Characterize the geomechanical considerations for storage integrity and associated risks, including caprock sealing considerations.
  4. Appreciate the impact of geochemical and microbial interactions in subsurface hydrogen stores and the relevant monitoring and management tools.
  5. Describe the operational engineering considerations and monitoring of hydrogen storage sites.

Course Content

Part 1: Options for the geological storage of hydrogen

  • Existing experience in underground gas storage operations
    • natural gas
    • hydrogen
  • Subsurface silos
    • technology description
    • design requirements (including geological requirements)
    • sealing / subsurface silos and groundwater control
    • hydrogen injection and withdrawal operational procedures / considerations
    • costs and safety considerations
  • Engineered rock caverns
    • technology description
    • design requirements (including geological requirements)
    • hydrodynamic sealing design principles
    • cavern construction and groundwater control
    • hydrogen injection and withdrawal operational procedures / considerations
    • hard rock cavern rock types / distribution / inventory
    • costs and safety considerations
  • Salt caverns
    • technology description
    • design requirements (including geological requirements)
    • cavern construction
    • hydrogen injection and withdrawal operational procedures / considerations
    • salt cavern rock types / distribution / inventory
    • costs and safety considerations
  • Porous rock storage – aquifers
    • technology description
    • design requirements (including geological requirements)
    • hydrogen injection and withdrawal operational procedures / considerations
    • aquifer storage distribution / inventory
    • costs and safety considerations
  • Porous rock storage – depleted gas fields
    • technology description
    • design requirements (including geological requirements)
    • hydrogen injection and withdrawal operational procedures / considerations
    • aquifer storage distribution / inventory
    • costs and safety considerations
  • Global UHS projects and their integration with existing and future energy systems
    • global UHS pilot projects in the pipeline
    • integration with energy system (renewable / curtailed wind / electricity / gas)

Activities include: Calculating volumetric capacities/energy densities of hydrogen under the different storage options; Using EU and global geological map viewers, geographical locations for the various hydrogen storage opportunities will be explored and evaluated within the context of existing energy infrastructures, renewable energy and industrial centres.

Part 2: Hydrogen flow and geomechanics

  • Thermodynamic and transport properties of hydrogen / Hydrogen P-T phase diagram
  • Thermodynamic and transport properties of hydrogen mixtures (water, CO2, N2, CH4 and natural gas)
  • Hydrogen transport properties (all storage types)
    • porosity (primary / secondary)
    • permeability and its influence on hydrogen injection and flow
      • absolute and effective permeability
      • permeability isotropy and anisotropy
      • homogeneity and heterogeneity
    • relative permeability
    • capillary entry pressure
      • pore size
      • interfacial tension
      • contact angle
      • wettability
    • advection
    • molecular diffusion
    • dispersion
    • diffusion
    • viscous fingering
  • Geomechanical considerations for storage integrity during cyclic injection
    • temperature changes during injection / withdrawal
    • pressure changes during injection / withdrawal
    • reservoir deformation
  • Caprock sealing potential
    • capillary pressure column height conversion
    • diffusive losses
    • stress / strain and hysteresis
      • injection / withdrawal pressures
      • stress state in the subsurface
      • failure mechanics
      • formation damage
      • faults and leakage risk
      • fractures and microfractures
    • drainage / imbibition
      • residual trapping

Activities include: Hydrogen column height calculations; Hydrogen caprock diffusion calculations; Injection rate calculations for varying permeability.

Part 3: Impact of geochemical and microbial interactions

  • Hydrogen solubility and impact of pressure, temp, Ph and salinity
  • Geochemistry
    • range of minerals that may react with hydrogen and their associated lithology, e.g. pyrite / pyrrhotite, anhydrite, hematite, clays, calcite etc.
    • mechanisms and kinetics of redox reactions
    • kinetics of precipitation and dissolution
    • mineral reaction rates
    • reactions with well cements and casing
    • impact of geochemical activities
      • gas composition changes
      • dissolution of minerals and change in reservoir properties
      • souring and H2S
      • steel corrosion
    • geochemical impacts from experiences of hydrogen underground storage
  • Risks associated with microbial activities
    • microbes in the subsurface (what and where)
    • environmental parameters for microbial life
    • microbial hydrogen consumption processes
    • impact of microbial activities
      • gas composition changes
      • souring and H2S
      • microbial induced plugging or clogging
      • steel corrosion
      • dissolution of minerals and change in reservoir properties
      • impact of H leakage on soil and groundwater microbial communities
    • microbial activity impacts from experiences of hydrogen underground storage sites
    • microbial effects in salt caverns
    • recommendations on design, monitoring and management tools to manage microbial risks

Activities include: Classification of storage sites in terms of risks of mineral dissolution; Classification of storage sites in terms of risks of microbial consumption of hydrogen.

Part 4: Operational considerations and monitoring of hydrogen storage sites

  • Optimization of injection-withdrawal strategies
  • Cushion gas
    • role of cushion gas
    • implications of using different types of cushion gas on the effectiveness of storage operations
  • Analyses and assessments of potential interactions with existing (sub)surface usage and resources
  • Integrity of surface facilities and wells
    • evaluation of storage facility lifecycle
    • well cement integrity
    • suitability of materials for wells and surface facilities
    • storage facility operational parameters
    • safety and monitoring concepts
  • Risk of leakage through abandoned wells
    • abandonment completion assessments
    • leakage assessment
  • Risk of micro seismicity during cyclic injection and production operations
  • Monitoring strategies
    • geophysics: seismic / microseismic, electrical resistivity etc.
    • monitoring wells
    • conventional monitoring: annulus pressure, radioactive tracer survey, casing inspection log, pressure test on the casing, neutron log, sonic detection, cement bond log, temperature log, spinner survey, pump and plug test, and camera inspection, etc.
  • Public perception

Activities include: Risk assessment of hydrogen leakage; Assessment of re-purposing depleted gas field for hydrogen storage.

The Hydrogen Landscape: Production, Policy and Regulation (E575)

Tutor(s)

Katriona Edlmann: Chancellor’s Fellow in Energy, University of Edinburgh

Overview

Future energy scenarios foresee a prominent and growing role for hydrogen. Demand is likely to rapidly exceed the capacity of typical above-ground energy storage technologies, necessitating the need for the geological storage of hydrogen in engineered hard rock caverns, solution mined salt caverns, depleted gas fields and saline aquifers. This course will provide participants with an overview of the current hydrogen landscape, including its likely role in the energy transition, production and economic challenges.

Duration and Logistics

Classroom version: A 1-day course comprising a mix of lectures, case studies and exercises. The manual will be provided in digital format and participants will be required to bring a laptop or tablet computer to follow the lectures and exercises.

Virtual version: Two 4-hour interactive online sessions presented over two days (mornings in North America and afternoons in Europe). Digital course notes and exercise materials will be distributed to participants before the course. Some exercises may be completed by participants off-line.

Level and Audience

Fundamental. Intended for subsurface scientists involved in hydrogen projects.

Objectives

You will learn to:

  1. Appreciate the role of geoscience in the hydrogen economy and the contribution hydrogen can make to the energy transition in support of Net Zero emission targets.
  2. Describe the different processes involved in hydrogen production and the associated lifecycle carbon intensity of this production.
  3. Recall details of the developing hydrogen supply chains, including infrastructure considerations, distribution networks and pathways for market growth.

Course Content

  • Role of hydrogen in the energy transition (is it more than the last 20% of clean power?)
    • energy storage to balance renewables
    • decarbonizing hard to abate sectors
  • Energy system integration
    • power to X
    • existing energy system overview
    • renewable energy and curtailment
    • grid scale energy storage requirements / challenges
  • Policy and regulatory landscape
    • policy drivers
    • legal and regulatory frameworks
    • licencing and permitting
    • safety standards and gas regulations
    • just transition
  • Existing / planned hydrogen projects globally
  • Hydrogen production – the full rainbow
    • natural hydrogen accumulations (white hydrogen)
    • methane (SMR), autothermal (ATR) reformation, partial oxidation (POX) or pyrolysis of hydrocarbons (grey hydrogen) and coal (brown / black hydrogen)
    • above with capture and secure geological storage of the CO2 (blue hydrogen)
    • electrolysis using renewable electricity (green hydrogen)
    • metabolic microbial processes using light energy to produce hydrogen from water
    • fermentation of biomass to produce hydrogen
    • pyrolysis or gasification of biomass
    • photoelectrochemical Water Splitting
    • Solar Thermal Water Splitting (yellow hydrogen)
    • electrolysis powered by nuclear energy (pink hydrogen)
    • in-situ hydrocarbon combustion
    • methane pyrolysis to produce hydrogen and solid carbon (turquoise hydrogen)
  • Lifecycle carbon intensity of hydrogen production
  • Storing and moving hydrogen
    • properties of hydrogen as an energy carrier
    • pressures of hydrogen within the entire chain
    • storing compressed / liquid hydrogen (line pack – tanks – geological)
    • hydrogen carriers and adsorbents, including ammonia, liquid organic hydrogen, metal hydrides
    • pipelines
      • suitability to hydrogen (e.g. embrittlement)
      • hydrogen blending / de-blending
      • repurposed vs new systems
  • Costs and efficiency penalties
    • hydrogen production methods
    • cost, efficiency and infrastructure considerations in compression and liquification application.
  • Developing hydrogen supply chains for a just energy transition (uses)
    • approaches to hydrogen market growth
    • scaling up
    • development of the hydrogen distribution and storge infrastructure
    • industrial clusters and hubs
    • hydrogen value chain
  • innovation and technology opportunities
  • hydrogen / carbon trading
  • Impact of increased hydrogen concentrations form fugitive emissions in the atmosphere
  • Assessment of critical mineral needs in batteries versus fuel cells

Activities include: Using the MacKay Carbon Calculator, creating pathways to find out how we might reduce the UK’s greenhouse gas emissions to Net Zero by 2050 and beyond, and highlight the opportunities for hydrogen; Estimating emission savings associated with a range of different hydrogen switching options.

The Fundamentals of Hydrogen Energy (E903)

Tutor(s)

Kevin Taylor: Professor in Energy Geoscience, University of Manchester

Overview

The aim of this course is to give an overview of the fundamental aspects of the current hydrogen energy landscape. This will include a range of topics, including what hydrogen is and why it can potentially be a significant fuel and energy carrier, the different methods in which it can be produced, its potential role in decarbonization of energy and heat, how it can be stored in the subsurface, and its place overall within the energy transition.

Duration and Logistics

Classroom version: A half-day course comprising a mix of lectures, case studies and exercises. The manual will be provided in digital format and participants will be required to bring a laptop or tablet computer to follow the lectures and exercises.

Virtual version: One 3-hour interactive online session (a morning in North America and an afternoon in Europe). A digital manual and exercise materials will be distributed to participants before the course.

Level and Audience

Awareness. The course is aimed at non-technical staff and those who do not have a scientific background but want a basic introduction to the topic. The subject matter will be covered from very basic principles and will be of interest to staff from a range of departments, including legal, graphics, administration and technical support.

Objectives

You will learn to:

  1. Understand what hydrogen is and why it can be used as a fuel and energy carrier.
  2. Describe how hydrogen can be produced and the resulting different types and terminology.
  3. Appreciate the role hydrogen can play in decarbonizing energy and heat, and the competing demands in the hydrogen energy landscape.
  4. Appreciate the different storage options for hydrogen, particularly in the subsurface.
  5. Recall details of the developing hydrogen supply chains, including infrastructure and distribution networks.

Course Content

This short course covers the key aspects of the emerging hydrogen economy and will give participants a fundamental understanding of the possible role of hydrogen in the energy transition. Topics to be covered include:

  • Producing hydrogen
  • Storing and moving hydrogen
  • What hydrogen can be used for
  • Developing hydrogen supply chains
  • How hydrogen can be stored underground